Incremental Model Formulation of Creep under Time-varying Stress History

시간이력 하중을 받는 콘크리트의 점증적 크리프 모델

  • Received : 2013.09.24
  • Accepted : 2014.04.01
  • Published : 2014.06.01


Internal or external restraint of concrete strain due to drying shrinkage and creep in concrete structures causes mechanical strain and becomes a source of persistent change in creep-causing stress conditions. Mathematical modeling to incorporate the persistent change of creep-inducing stress is generally achieved with consideration of the ages of concrete and concrete properties at the times of loadings, and stress history. This paper presents an incremental format of creep model based on parallel creep concept to depict the creep under time-varying stress history in developing creep strain. Laboratory experiments are carried out to validate the performance of the presented creep model. Typical creep phenomena are addressed through the comparisons between the measured and predicted creep strains.


Supported by : 국토교통과학기술진흥원


  1. ACI Committee 209 (1996). Prediction of creep, shrinkage and temperature effect in concrete structures, ACI Manual of Concrete Practice, Part I.
  2. Bazant, Z. P. (1972). "Prediction of concrete creep effects using age-adjusted effective modulus method." ACI J., Vol. 69, No. 4, pp. 212-217.
  3. Bazant, Z. P. and Chern, J. C. (1985). "Concrete creep at variable humidity: Constitutive law and mechanism." Materials and Structures, RILEM, Vol. 18 No. 103, pp. 1-20.
  4. Choi, H. T. and Yoon, Y. S. (1999). "Comparative study on the creep models and analytical methods in concrete considering incremental stress history." J. of KSCE, KSCE, Vol. 19, No. I-5, pp. 675-685 (in Korean).
  5. fib (1999). Structural concrete-textbook on behavior; Design and Performance, CEB-FIP Model Code 1990, Vol. 1, pp. 21-52.
  6. Ghali, A. and Favre, R. (1986). Concrete structures: Stresses and Deformations, Chapmal and Hall, London-New York.
  7. Gilbert, R. I. (1988). Time effects in concrete structures, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam.
  8. Gilbert, R. I. and Ranzi, G. (2010). Time-dependent behavior of concrete structures, Spon Press, London and New York.
  9. Glanville, W. H. (1930). Studies in reinforced concrete - III, the creep or flow of concrete under load, Building Research Technical Paper No. 12, Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Research, London.
  10. Kawano, A. and Warner, R. F. (1992). "Model formulations for numerical creep calculations for concrete." J. of Struct. Engrg., ASCE, Vol. 122, No. 3, pp. 284-290.
  11. KCI Committee (2007). Design standard for concrete structures, KCI (in Korean).
  12. Oh, B. H. and Lee, H. J. (2000). "Time-dependent analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures considering tensile creep of concrete." J. of KSCE, KSCE, Vol. 20, No. 1-A, pp. 1-11 (in Korean).
  13. Oh, B. H., Choi, S. C. and Cha, S. W. (2005). "Identification of relaxation in early-age concrete using differential-type viscoelastic constitutive law." J. of KSCE, KSCE, Vol. 25, No. 1A, pp. 1-9 (in Korean).
  14. Pisani, M. A. (1996). "Numerical analysis of creep problems." Computers and Structures, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 57-63.
  15. Rusch, H., Jungwirth, D. and Hilsdorf, H. K. (1983). Creep and shrinkage their effect on the behavior of concrete structures, Springer-verlag, New York, Heidelberg, Berlin.
  16. Whitney, C. S. (1932). "Plain and reinforced concrete arches." ACI J., Vol. 28, pp. 479-519.