Effects of the KI-180 and KI-188 Calcium Formulae on the Growth and Development of Rats

KI-180과 KI-188 칼슘조성물이 어린쥐의 성장발육에 미치는 영향

  • Received : 2013.11.06
  • Accepted : 2014.02.04
  • Published : 2014.06.30


Herbs have active components that promote the growth rate of both animals and human. The KI-180 and KI-188 calcium food formulae contain Acanthopanacis cortex, Bombysis corpus and hoelen, seaweed calcium, chlorella extract, spirulina, colostrum powder, and other natural and functional components. We evaluated the growth-promoting effects of these formulae by analyzing the weight, femur and backbone, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) of growing rats. Growing rats administered with KI-180 and KI-188 calcium showed the increase of body weight, body length, and femur weight and length of growing rats. In addition, administration of KI-180 and KI-188 calcium increased the alkaline phosphatase activity, the levels of osteocalcin and the growth hormones IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 of growing rats. The impact of KI-180 and KI-188 calcium on the physical development of growing rats suggests that the incorporation of these food formulae in the diets of growing children may promote the physical development.


KI-180;growth hormone;IGF-1;IGFBP-3


  1. Sung HG. Effect of Nogjungtang (Korean Traditional Deer Decoction) on growth, feed efficiency and hematologic index in Sprague-Dawley rats. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 34: 1164-1168 (2005)
  2. Blum WF, Albertsson-Wikland K, Rosberg S, Ranke MB. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein 3 reflect spontaneous growth hormone secretion. J. Clin. Endocr. Metab. 76: 1610-1616 (1993)
  3. Ra JC, Park HG, Choi MK, Lee HY, Kang KS. The development of functional food with plant extracts for enhancing growth rate. J. Fd. Hyg. Safety 19: 112-118 (2004)
  4. Leem KH, Kim HC. Effect of Cibotium barometz on the growth of longitudinal bone in adolescent male rats. Korean J. Herbology 16: 49-55 (2001)
  5. Park SY, Leem KH, Kim HC. Effects of Acanthopanacis senticosi Radix and its subfractions on longitudinal bone growth of adolescent rats. Korean J. Herbology 18: 87-92 (2003)
  6. Yang DS, Cha MH, Kang BJ, Oh SW, Kim YE, Yoon YS. A study on the longitudinal bone growth of growth-stimulating material with Eleutherococcus senticosus. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 35: 702-707 (2003)
  7. Jung DY, Lee HY, Ha HK, Jung DY, Kang SS, Kim CS. Induction of growth hormone release by the extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Korean J. Pharmacogn. 34: 256-262 (2003)
  8. Czekanska EM, Stoddart MJ, Richards RG, Hayes JS. In search of an osteoblast cell model for in vitro research. Eur. Cells Mater. 24: 1-17 (2012)
  9. Jeong JC, Lee JW, Yoon CH, Lee YC, Chung KH, Kim MG, Kim CH. Stimulative effects of Drynariae Rhizoma extracts on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. J. Ethnopharmacol. 96: 489-495 (2005)
  10. Jeong JC, Lee JW, Yoon CH, Kim HM, Kim CH. Drynariae Rhizoma promotes osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in MC3T3-E1 cells through regulation of bone morphogenetic protein-2, alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen and collagenase-1. Toxicol. In Vitro 18: 829-834 (2004)
  11. Rakover Y, Lu P, Briody JN, Tao C, Weiner E, Ederveen AG, Cowell CT, Ben-Shlomo I. Effects of delaying puberty on bone mineralization in female rats. Hum. Reprod.15:1457-1461 (2000)
  12. No SJ, Choi JS, Han HS. Several problems of growth hormone stimulation test in clinical application. J. Korean Soc. Pediatr. Endocrinol. 12: 6-14 (2007)
  13. Hilczer M, Smyczynska J, Stawerska R, Lewinski A. Stability of IGF-I concentration despite divergent results of repeated GH stimulating tests indicates poor reproducibility of test results. Endocr. Regul. 40: 37-45 (2006)
  14. Choi CS, Kim JS, Lee CW, Park JS, Hong EK. Effect of plant extract (YGF) on inducing IGF-1 secretion. Korean J. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 17: 203-206 (2002)
  15. Arsenijevic Y, Weiss S, Schneider B, Aebischer P. Insulin-like growth factor-I is necessary for neural stem cell proliferation and demonstrates distinct actions of epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-2. J. Neurosci. 21: 7194-7202 (2001)
  16. Bennett A, Wilson DM, Liu F, Nagashima R, Rosenfeld RG, Hintz RL. Levels of insulin-like growth factors I and II in human cord blood. J. Clin. Endocr. Metab. 57: 609-612 (1983)
  17. Cohick WS, Clemmons DR. The insulin-like growth factors. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 55: 131-153 (1993)
  18. Furlanetto RW, Cara JF. Somatomedin-C/insulin-like growth factor-I as a modulator of growth during childhood and adolescence. Horm. Res. 24: 177-184 (1986)
  19. Whiting SJ, Vatanparast H, Baxter-Jones A, Faulkner RA, Mirwald R, Bailey DA. Factors that affect bone mineral accrual in the adolescent growth spurt. J. Nutr. 134: 696S-700S (2004)
  20. Snyderman SE, Holt LE Jr, Dancis J, Roitman E, Boyer A, Balis ME. "Unessential" nitrogen: a limiting factor for human growth. J. Nutr. 78: 57-72 (1962)
  21. Gehring KD, Graw M. Determining body height by the femur and femoral fragments. Arch. Kriminol. 207: 170-180 (2001)
  22. Tucker KL, Chen H, Hannan MT, Cupples LA, Wilson PW, Felson D, Kiel DP. Bone mineral density and dietary patterns in older adults: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.76: 245-252 (2002)
  23. Wattanapenpaiboon N, Lukito W, Wahlqvist ML, Strauss BJ. Dietary carotenoid intake as a predictor of bone mineral density. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 12: 467-473 (2003)
  24. Koh JB, Choi MA. Effects of Paecilomyces japonica on lipid metabolism in rats fed high fat diet. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 32: 238-243 (2003)
  25. Kwak YS, Wee JJ, Hwang SY, Kyung JS, Kim SK. Effect of crude saponin fraction from Korean red ginseng on physiological functions of old female rat. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 29: 460-465 (2000)
  26. Kim JH, Hong SG, Kim WY, Jung JS, Hwang SJ, Mok CK, Park MH, Lee JY. Effects of long-term administration of saengshik on growth increment, BMD and blood IGF-1 concentration in growing rats. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 36: 439-446 (2007)
  27. Kwon KH, Cha WS, Kim DC, Shin HJ. A research and application of active ingredients in bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miquel). Korean J. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 21: 405-409 (2006)
  28. Park SM, Han CK. Effect of Hwalhyulsungjang-san and KC101 composed of oriental medicinal stuffs on physical development in growing rats. J. Korean Oriental Med. 24: 1-8 (2003)
  29. Lee KW, Sung KS, Kim SS, Lee OH, Lee BH, Han CK. Effects of Cucurbita moschata, adlay seed, and Cudrania tricuspidata leaf mixed-powder diet supplements on the visceral fat, fecal amount, and serum lipid levels of the rats on a high-fat diet. Korean J. Food Nutr. 25: 990-998 (2012)
  30. Lee JS, Kim ES, Kim HJ. Effects of ginseng-cake on growth and biochemical components of rats. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 20: 329-336 (1991)
  31. Graham GG, Cordano A, Baertl JM. Studies in infantile malnutrition. 3. Effect of protein and calorie intake on nitrogen retention. J. Nutr. 84: 71-76 (1964)
  32. Sung HG, Kim DK, Shin HT. Influence of powdered velvet antler on growth and intestinal organ development in Sprague-Dawley rats. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Kor.) 45: 749-758 (2003)
  33. Juul A, Kastrup KW, Pedersen SA, Skakkebaek NE. Growth hormone (GH) provocative retesting of 108 young adults with childhood-onset GH deficiency and the diagnostic value of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3. J. Clin. Endocr. Metab. 82: 1195-1201 (1997)
  34. Conover CA. Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins and bone metabolism. Am. J. Physiol.-Endoc. M. 294: E10-14 (2008)
  35. Kang KW, Koh HK, Lee YH. The effects of Nokyongsageunhwan herbal acupuncture and oral administration on the growth and the intellectual development of rats. The Acupuncture 20: 45-62 (2003)
  36. Ryu KS, Kim IS, Ahn MY, Kim JW, Lee PJ. Functionality research on silkworm and sericultural products. Food Sci. Ind. 36(3): 15-24 (2003)
  37. McCarthy AD, Etcheverry SB, Cortizo AM. Effect of advanced glycation endproducts on the secretion of insulin-like growth factor-I and its binding proteins: role in osteoblast development. Acta Diabetol. 38: 113-122 (2001)
  38. Yang GH, Jung HL, Kim DS, Shim JW, Shim JY, Park MS. Evaluation of serum insulin-like growth factor(IGF)-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-2 and IGFBP-3 levels in healthy Korean children. Korean J. Pediatr. 48: 298-305 (2005)
  39. Ueno T, Mizukawa N, Sugahara T. Experimental study of bone formation from autogenous periosteal graft following insulin-like growth factor I administration. J. Cranio Maxill. Surg. 27: 308-313 (1999)
  40. Jonitz A, Lochner K, Tischer T, Hansmann D, Bader R. TGF-a1 and IGF-1 influence the re-differentiation capacity of human chondrocytes in 3D pellet cultures in relation to different oxygen concentrations. Int. J. Mol. Med. 30: 666-672 (2012)