DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Risk Assessment for Non-Cancer Effects of Volatile Organic Compounds in Children's Products

어린이용품에 함유된 휘발성유기화합물의 비발암 위해성평가

  • Kim, Jungkon (National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
  • Seo, Jung-Kwan (National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
  • Kim, Taksoo (National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
  • Park, Gun-Ho (Institute of Environmental Protection and Safety, NeoEnBiz Co.)
  • Received : 2014.04.21
  • Accepted : 2014.06.01
  • Published : 2014.06.30

Abstract

Background: This study was conducted to assess health risks in regard to exposure by children to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in children's products. Methods: Ten VOCs were measured by head-space gas chromatography in children's products, including toys, oil pastels, sign pens, furniture, ball pools, and playmats. We estimated the average daily dose (ADD) via inhalation during the use of these children's products and calculated hazard quotient (HQ) by dividing ADD by reference dose of VOCs. Results: Among the measured VOCs, five compounds were identified in children's products: benzene, ethylbenzene, styrene, toluene, and xylene. The detection rates of VOCs in toys, ball pools, furniture, playmats, sign pens, and oil pastels were 85%, 100%, 100%, 30%, 100%, and 60%, respectively. The maximum levels of VOCs were 0.18 mg benzene/kg in toys, 5.92 mg toluene/kg in playmats, 10.37 mg ethylbenzene/kg in ball pools, 24.85 mg xylene/kg in toys, and 118.29 mg styrene/kg in ball pools. From exposure levels of VOCs in the children's products HQs were calculated within a range of $5.71{\times}10^{-10}$ to $4.77{\times}10^{-4}$. The HQ of xylene was the highest for children aged 0-6 playing on the playmats. However, the HQ via inhalation exposure to VOCs in individual products did not exceed 1.00. Conclusion: Based on the results, it was concluded that the use of these children's products do not pose health risks to children.

Keywords

Children's products;Volatile organic compounds;Risk assessment;Inhalation exposure

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 국립환경과학원

References

  1. National Institute of Environmental Research. Operating guidance and application of test method for exposure assessment of heavy metals and volatile organic compounds in child-products. Inchon: National Institute of Environmental Research Press; 2013.
  2. European Chemicals Bureau. Technical guidance document on risk assessment. Richmond: European Chemicals Bureau Press; 2003.
  3. US Environmental Protection Agency. Exposure factors handbook. US Environmental Protection Agency; 2011.
  4. Bahadar H, Mostafalou S, Abdollahi M. Current understandings and perspectives on non-cancer health effects of benzene: A global concern. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014; 276(2): 83-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2014.02.012
  5. Linz D, de Garmo P, Morton W, Wiens A, Coull B, Maricle R. Organic solvent-induced encephalopathy in industrial painters. J Occup Med. 1986; 28: 119-125.
  6. Kim J, Seo J, Kim T, Park G. Survey of exposure factors for risk assessment of hazardous materials in child-specific products. J Environ Health Sci. 2014; 40(1): 17-26.
  7. US Environmental Protection Agency. Child-specific exposure factors handbook. US Environmental Protection Agency; 2008.
  8. National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. Availavle: http://rivm.nl/ [accessed 21 April 2014].
  9. Cho IH, Ju HJ, Kwon GH. The impact analysis of air pollutants on increasing environmental disease-Focusing on allergic rhinitis and ashma in Seoul methopolitan city. Seoul Studies. 2013; 6: 97-114.
  10. Environmental Health Portal. Available: www.envhealth.go.kr [accessed 21 April 2014].
  11. Jung K. The policy direction on environment diseases and environmental risk of children health. Health Welfare Policy Forum. 2009; 152: 100-111.
  12. So E, Yeo J. Relationship between health status and life styles and atopic dermatitis in adolescents. J Korean Acad Child Health Nurs. 2012; 18: 143-149. https://doi.org/10.4094/jkachn.2012.18.3.143
  13. Lee C, Lee J, Chung U, Sohn H, Moon D, Chun J, et al. Neuroendocrine effects in occupational solvents exposure. Kor J Occup Med. 1995; 7: 362-374.
  14. National Institute of Environmental Research. Exposure and risk assessment of hazardous substances in child-products (IV): inhalation exposure. Inchon: National Institute of Environmental Research Press; 2010.
  15. National Institute of Environmental Research. Exposure and risk assessment of hazardous substances in child-products (III): dermal exposure. Inchon: National Institute of Environmental Research Press; 2009.
  16. National Institute of Environmental Research. Exposure and risk assessment of hazardous substances in child-products (II): oral exposure. Inchon: National Institute of Environmental Research Press; 2008.
  17. National Institute of Environmental Research. Exposure and risk assessment of hazardous substances in child-products (I): oral exposure. Inchon: National Institute of Environmental Research Press; 2007.
  18. European Committee for Standardization. Safety of toys. Part 11. Organic chemical compounds. Methods of analysis. CEN Press; 2005.