Fungicidal Efficacy of a Fumigation Disinfectant with Ortho-phenylphenol as an Active Ingredient against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger

Ortho-phenylphenol을 주성분을 하는 훈증소독제의 Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Candida albicans 그리고 Aspergillus niger에 대한 살진균 효과

  • Park, Eun-Kee (Department of Medical Humanities and Social Medicine, College of Medicine, Kosin University) ;
  • Lee, Soo-Ung (Chuncheon Bioindustry Foundation) ;
  • Cho, Ki-Yung (Meteorology education platoon, Information & Communication School, ROKAF Education & Training Command) ;
  • Kim, Yongpal (Elkahmco Bio Co., Ltd.) ;
  • Yoo, Chang-Yeol (Department of Computer Information, Gyeongnam Provincial Namhae College) ;
  • Kim, Suk (Research Institute of Life Sciences and College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Lee, Hu-Jang (Research Institute of Life Sciences and College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University)
  • 박은기 (고신대학교 의과대학 인문사회의학교실) ;
  • 이수응 ((재)춘천바이오산업진흥원) ;
  • 조기융 (공군교육사령부 정보통신학교 기상교육대) ;
  • 김용팔 (엘캄코 바이오(주)) ;
  • 유창열 (경남도립남해대학 인터넷정보학과) ;
  • 김석 (경상대학교 수의과대학.생명과학연구원) ;
  • 이후장 (경상대학교 수의과대학.생명과학연구원)
  • Received : 2014.04.03
  • Accepted : 2014.06.12
  • Published : 2014.06.30


Objectives: This study evaluated the fungicidal efficacy of a fumigant containing 20% ortho-phenylphenol against Trichophytone mentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes), Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Aspergillus niger (A. niger). Methods: Five replicates of each carrier were contaminated by depositing 0.05 mL of each fungal suspension. After drying, two carriers without exposure to the fumigant and three carriers with exposure to the fumigant were left in a sealed room ($25m^3$) at $21{\pm}0.5^{\circ}C$ and $60{\pm}10%$ relative humidity for 15 hours. Immediately after removal from the test room, each carrier was transferred into recovery diluent and suspended, diluted and inoculated. After incubation, the numbers of each colony were counted, and the parameter values (N, T, d) were calculated. Results: The working culture suspension number (N value) of T. mentagrophytes, C. albicans and A. niger were $1.0{\times}10^8$, $1.2{\times}10^8$ and $5.7{\times}10^7CFU/mL$, respectively. All the colony numbers on the carriers exposed to the fumigant (n1, n2, n3) were higher than 0.5N1 (the number of fungal test suspensions by pour plate method), 0.5N2 (the number of fungal test suspensions by filter membrane method) and 0.5N1, respectively. In addition, all mean numbers of test strains recovered on the control-carriers (T value) were over $10^6CFU/mL$. For the fungicidal effect of the fumigant, all numbers of fungal reductions after exposure of the fumigant (d value) were 4 logCFU/mL. Conclusions: The present study showed that fumigant containing 20% ortho-phenylphenol has effective fungicidal activity against T. mentagrophytes, C. albicans and A. niger.


Aspergillus niger;Candida albicans;Fumigation disinfectant;Ortho-phenylphenol;Trichophyton mentagrophytes


Supported by : (주)엘캄코바이오


  1. Formato A, Naviglio D, Pucillo GP, Nota G. Improved fumigation process for stored foodstuffs by using phosphine in sealed chambers. J Agric Food Chem. 2012; 60(1): 331-338.
  2. Association Francaise de Normalisation. Methods of airborne disinfection of surfaces-Determination of bactericidal, fungicidal, yeasticidal and sopricidal activity. Saint-Denis: AFNOR Press; 2009. p.6-22.
  3. Park EK, Kim Y, Yu EA, Yoo CY, Choi H, Kim S, et al. Bactericidal efficacy of Fumagari OPP(R), fumigant against Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. J Fd Hyg Safety. 2013; 28: 1-7.
  4. Walsh TJ, Venanzi WE, Dixon DM. Quantification of medically important Candida species and Torulopsis glabrata by a spiral inoculation system: Correlation with pour plate and spread plate methods. J Clin Microbiol. 1985; 22(5): 745-747.
  5. Parveen S, Kaur S, David SA, Kenney JL, McCormick WM, Gupta RK. Evaluation of growth based rapid microbiological methods for sterility testing of vaccines and other biological products. Vaccine. 2011; 29(45): 8012-8023.
  6. Meszaros JE, Antloga K, Justi C, Plesnicher C, McDonnell G. Area fumigation with hydrogen peroxide vapor. Appl Biosaf. 2005; 10(2): 91-100.
  7. Arita M, Nagayoshi M, Fukuizumi T, Okinaga T, Masumi S, Morikawa M, et al. Microbicidal efficacy of ozonated water against Candida albicans adhering to acrylic denture plates. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2005; 20(4): 206-210.
  8. Mizutani S, Endo M, Ino-Ue T, Kurasawa M, Uno Y, Saito H, et al. $CD4^+$-T-Cell-mediated resistance to systemic murine candidiasis by a membrane fraction of Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000; 44(10): 2653-2658.
  9. Pattron DD. Aspergillus, health implication & recommendations for public health food safety. Internet J Food Saf. 2006; 8: 19-23.
  10. Shankar J. An overview of toxinsd in Aspergillus associated with pathogenesis. Int J Life Sc Bt & Pharm Res. 2013; 2(2): 16-31.
  11. Lanyasunya TP, Wamae LW, Musa HH, Olowofeso O, Lokwaleput IK. The risk of mycotoxins contamination of dairy feed and milk on small holder dairy farms in Kenya. Pakistan J Nut. 2005; 4(3): 162-169.
  12. Chehri J. Factors affecting the growth of biomass of Aspergillus niger. Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 1(1): 1-5.
  13. Soubani AO, Chandrasekar PH. The clinical spectrum of pulmonary aspergillosis. Chest. 2002; 121(6): 1988-1999.
  14. Russell AD. Biocide use and antibiotic resistance: the relevance of laboratory findings to clinical and environmental situations. Lancet Infect Dis. 2003; 3(12): 794-803.
  15. Sheldon AT. Antiseptic "resistance": real or perceived threat?. Clin Infect Dis. 2005; 40(11): 1650-1656.
  16. Coelhan M, Bromig KH, Glas K, Roberts AL. Determination and levels of the biocide ortho-Phenylphenol in canned beers from different countries. J Agric Food Chem. 2006; 54(16): 5731-5735.
  17. Trinetta V, Morgan MT, Linton RH. Use of highconcentration-short-time chlorine dioxide gas treatments for the inactivation of Salmonella enterica spp. inoculated onto Roma tomatoes. Food Microbiol. 2010; 27(8): 1009-1015.
  18. Miller JD. Fungi as contaminants in indoor air. Atmos Environ. 1992; 26A: 2163-2172.
  19. International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Volume 56 Some Naturally Occurring Substances: Food Items and Constituents, Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines and Mycotoxins. Lyon: IARC Press; 1997. p.1-33.
  20. Flannigan B, McGabe EM, McGarry F. Allergenic and toxigenic micro-organisms in houses. Soc Appl Bacteriol Symp Ser. 1991; 20: 61S-73S.
  21. Samet JM, Marbury MC, Spengler JD. Health effects and sources of indoor air pollution. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1987; 136(6): 1486-1508.
  22. Gupta AK, Summerbell RC. Tinea capitis. Med Mycol. 2000; 38(4): 255-287.
  23. Khettar L, Contet-Audonneau N. Guinea pigs and dermatophytosis. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2012; 139(10): 631-635.
  24. Kraemer A, Mueller RS, Werckenthin C, Straubinger RK, Hein J. Dermatophytes in pet guinea pigs and rabbits. Vet Microbiol. 2012; 157(1-2): 208-213.
  25. Kraemer A, Hein J, Heusinger A, Mueller RS. Clinical signs, therapy and zoonotic risk of pet guinea pigs with dermatophytosis. Mycoses. 2013; 56(2): 168-172.
  26. Rogers TJ, Balish E. Immunity to Candida albicans. Microbiol Rev. 1980; 44(4): 660-682.
  27. Muller and Kirk's small animal dermatology. Fungal skin diseases, 6th ed. Philadelphia: W B Saunders Company Press; 2001. p.3369-422.
  28. Gheorghiu C, Solcan G, Guguianu E. Case of systemic Candida infection in a dog. Zootchnie Med Vet-Romania. 1996; 38: 137-139.
  29. Kim JH, Sohn H, Jean YH, Hwang EK. Systemic candidiasis in two dogs. J Vet Sci. 1998; 40: 14-18.
  30. Tree of Life Web Project. Fungi. Available: [accessed January 14, 2014].
  31. Casadevall A. Determinants of virulence in the pathogenic fungi. Fungal Biol Rev. 2007; 21(4): 130-132.
  32. Wainwright M. The impact of fungi on environmental biogeochemistry. In: Carroll GC, Wicklow DT. The Fungal Com-munity: Its Organization and Role in the Ecosystem, 3rd ed. New York: CRC press; 2005. p.627-642.
  33. Tobin RS, Baranowski E, Gilman AP, Kuiper-Goodman T, Miller JD, Giddings M. Significance of fungi in indoor air: report of a working group. Can J Public Health. 1987; 78(2): S1-32.
  34. Burge HA. Airborne allergenic fungi. Classification, nomenclature, and distribution. Immunol Allergy Clin N Am. 1989; 9(2): 307-319.