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Current status, mechanism and control of herbicide resistant weeds in rice fields of Korea

한국 논에서 제초제 저항성잡초의 발생 현황, 메카니즘 및 방제

  • 박태선 (농촌진흥청 국립식량과학원) ;
  • 성기영 (농촌진흥청 국립식량과학원) ;
  • 조현숙 (농촌진흥청 국립식량과학원) ;
  • 서명철 (농촌진흥청 국립식량과학원) ;
  • 강항원 (농촌진흥청 국립식량과학원) ;
  • 박기웅 (충남대학교 식물자원학과)
  • Received : 2014.06.02
  • Accepted : 2014.06.13
  • Published : 2014.06.30

Abstract

Sulfonylurea (SU)-resistant weeds of eight annual weeds, Monochoria vaginalis, Scirpus juncoides and Cyperus difformis, etc., and four perennial weeds, Scirpus planiculmis, Sagittaria pigmaea, Eleocharis acicularis and Sagittaria trifolia as of 2013 since identification Monochoria korsakowii in the reclaimed rice field in 1998. And the resistant Echinochloa oryzoides to ACCase and ALS inhibitors has been confirmed in rice fields of the southern province, Korea in 2009. In the beginning, the M. vaginalis, S. juncoides and C. difformis of these SU-resistant weeds were rapidly and individually spreaded in different fields, however, these resistant weeds have been occurring simultaneously in the same filed recently. The resistant biotype by weed species demonstrated about 10-to 1,000-fold resistance, based on $GR_{50}$ values of the SU herbicides tested. And the resistant biotype of E. oryzoides to cyhalofop-butyl, pyriminobac-methyl, and penoxsulam was about 14, 8, and 11 times more resistant than the susceptible biotype base on $GR_{50}$ values. The products and applied area of SU-included herbicides have been increased rapidly, and have accounted for about 69% and 96% in Korea, respectively. In Korea, the main cause of SU-resistant weed is extensive use of these herbicides. The top ten herbicides by applied area were composed of all SU-included herbicides by 2003. The concentrated and successive treatment of ACCase and ALS inhibitors for control of barnyardgrass in rice led up to the resistance of E. oryzoides. Also, SU-herbicides like pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and imazosulfuron which effective to barnyardgrass can be bound up with the resistance of E. oryzoides. The ALS activity isolated from the resistant biotype of M. korsakowii to SU-herbicides tested was less sensitive than that of susceptible biotype. The concentration of herbicide required for 50% inhibition of ALS activity ($I_{50}$) of the SU-resistant M. korsakowii was 14-to 76-fold higher as compared to the susceptible biotype. No differences were observed in the rates of [$^{14}C$]bensulfuron uptake and translocation. Acetolactate synthase (ALS) genes from M. vaginalis resistant and susceptible biotypes against SU-herbicides revealed a single amino acid substitution of proline (CCT), at 197th position based on the M. korsakowii ALS sequence numbering, to serin (TCT) in conserved domain A of the gene. Carfentrazone-ethyl and pyrazolate were used mainly to control SU-resistant M. vaginalis by 2006 in Korea. However, the alternative herbicides such as benzobicyclone, to be possible to control simultaneously the several resistant weeds, have been developing and using broadly, because the several resistant weeds have been occurring simultaneously in the same fieled. The top ten herbicides by applied area in Korea have been occupied by products of 3-way mixture type including herbicides with alternative mode of action for the herbicide resistant weeds. Mefenacet, fentrazamide and cafenstrole had excellent controlling effects on the ACCase and ALS inhibitors resistant when they were applied within 2nd leaf stage.

Acknowledgement

Grant : 주요 논 잡초 발생 및 군락변화 예측 연구

Supported by : 농촌진흥청

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