Effects of Fermented Lotus Extracts on Glucose Intolerance and Lipid Metabolism-related Gene Expression

연잎-연근 복합 발효물이 흰쥐의 내당능 및 지질대사 관련 유전자 발현에 미치는 영향

  • Received : 2013.12.17
  • Accepted : 2014.01.03
  • Published : 2014.01.31

Abstract

Objectives This study was performed to evaluate the effects of fermented lotus extracts on prediabetes and hyperlipidemia in high fructose diet rats. Methods Extracts of lotus leaf and lotus root were fermented using 4 different probiotics separately, including Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium longum. Expressions of adipogenic transcription factors including Adiponectin, GLUT-4, Leptin, PPAR gamma, Resistin and Visfatin were analyzed by Real time PCR and Western blotting analysis. Results Fermented lotus extracts reduced blood glucose. Fermented lotus extracts inhibited adipogenic transcription factors by inhibiting preadipocytes differentiation. The level of gene expression of Adiponectin, GLUT-4, Leptin, PPAR gamma, Resistin and Visfatin in relation to that of GAPDH were increase or decrease significantly with the Fermented lotus formulation group. Conclusions Fermented lotus extracts showed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects by inhibiting preadipocyte differentiation and controlling insulin sensitivity in high fructose diet rats.

Keywords

Lotus;Probiotics;Fermentation;Insulin resistance;Hyperlipidemia

References

  1. 대한당뇨병학회. 픽업의 핵심 당뇨병학. 서울:EPUBLIC. 2006:2-4.
  2. 안영민. 한방으로 이겨내는 당뇨병. 서울:홍신문화사. 2003: 14-6.
  3. Centers for Disease Controland Prevention (CDC). Prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults with diagnosed diabetes-united states, 1988-1994 and 1999-2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004;53(45):1066-8.
  4. Schwartz MS, Chadha A. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in childhood: Obesity and insulin resistance. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2008;108(9):518-24.
  5. Ioannidis I. The road from obesity to type2 diabetes. Angiology. 2008;59(2Suppl):39S-43S. https://doi.org/10.1177/0003319708318583
  6. Kim SM, Yun HJ, Yi HS, Won CW, Kim JE, Park SD. Nelumbo nucifera leaves inhibit HASMC proliferation and migration activated by TNF-$\alpha$. The Society for Herbal. 2009;24(4):77-86.
  7. Kim CM, Shin MG, Lee KS, Ahn DG. Dictionary or oriental herbs. Seoul:Jeongdam. 1997:4623-5.
  8. Professors in Dept. of Herbalogy, College of Korean Medicine College. Herbalogy. Seoul:Younglimsa. 1995:434.
  9. Ling ZQ, Xie BJ, Yang EL. Isolation, characterization, and determination of antioxidative activity of oligomeric procyanidins from the seedpod of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:2441-5. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf040325p
  10. Ko BS, Jun DW, Jang JS, Kim JH, Park SM. Effect of sasa borealis and white lotus roots and leaves on insulin action and secretion in vitro. Korean J Food SCI TECHNOL. 2006;38(1):114-20.
  11. Choi YK, Sul JU, Park SK, Yu SN, Kim SH, Rhee MS, Ahn SC, Shin MS. Research trends of fermented medicinal herb - based on their clinical efficacy and safety assessment. J Life Sci. 2012;22(12):1729-39. https://doi.org/10.5352/JLS.2012.22.12.1729
  12. Fineman MS, Bicsak TA, Shen LZ, Taylor K, Gaines E, Varns A, Kim D, Baron AD. Effect on glycemic control of exenatide (synthetic exendin-4) additive to existing metformin and/or sulfonylurea treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:2370-7. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.26.8.2370
  13. Tosi F, Muggeo M, Brun E, Spiazzi G, Perobelli L, Zanolin E, Gori M, Coppini A, Moghetti P. Combination treatment with metformin and glibenclamide versus single- drug therapies in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, comparative study. Metabolism. 2003; 52:862-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0026-0495(03)00101-X
  14. Oudjeriouat N, Moreau Y, Santimone M, Svensson B, Marchis Mouren G, Desseaux V. On the mechanism of alpha-amylase. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:3871-9. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1432-1033.2003.03733.x
  15. Akuljaitrong S, Buddhakala N, Chomko S, Talubmook C. Effects of flower extract from lotus (nelumbo nucifera) on hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research. 2013;4(7):1441-6.
  16. Yuk CS. Coloured medicinal plants of Korea. Seoul: Academy Book Co. Korea. 1990:219-30.
  17. Wenigman M. Phyto therapie. Urban & Fischer. 1996:324-6.
  18. Kim SB, Rho SB, Rhyu DY, Kim DW. Effect of nelumbo nucifera leaves on hyperlipidemic and atherosclerotic bio F1B hamster. The Korean Society of Pharmacognogy. 2005;36:229-34.
  19. Jung YJ, Han DO, Choi BH, Park C, Lee HJ, Kim SH, Hahm DH. Effect of fermented herbal extracts, HP-1 on enzyme activities and gene expressions related to alcohol metabolism in ethanol-loaded rats. Korean J Oriental Physiology & Pathology. 2007;21:387-91.
  20. Choi YK, Sui JU, Park SK, Yu SN, Kim SH, Rhee MS, Ahn SC, Shin MS. Research trends of fermented medicinal herbs - based on their clinical efficacy and safety assessment. Jounal of Life Science. 2012;22(12):1729-39. https://doi.org/10.5352/JLS.2012.22.12.1729
  21. Cani PD, Bibiloni R, Knauf C, Waget A, Neyrinck AM, Delzenne NM, Burcelin R. Changes in gut microbiota control metabolic endotoxemia-induced inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes in mice. Diabetes. 2008;57(6):1470-81. https://doi.org/10.2337/db07-1403
  22. Park JH, Kim HJ, Lee MJ. The role of gut microbiota in obesity and utilization of fermented herbal extracts. J Soc Korean Med Obes Res. 2009;9:1-14.
  23. Trayhurn P, Wood IS. Adipokines: Inflammation and the pleiotropic role of white adipose tissue. BrJNutr. 2004; 92(3):347-5.
  24. Javor ED, Cochran EK, Musso C, Young JR, Depaoli AM, Gorden P. Long-term efficacy of leptin replacement in patients with generalized lipodystrophy. Diabetes. 2005; 54(7):1994-2002. https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.54.7.1994
  25. Korner A, Kratzsch J, Gausche R, Schaab M, Erbs S, Kiess W. New predictors of the metabolic syndrome in children-role of adipocytokines. Pediatr Res. 2007;61(6): 640-5. https://doi.org/10.1203/01.pdr.0000262638.48304.ef
  26. 김두만. Adiponectin과 혈관질환. Biowave. 2006;8(11):1-3.
  27. 이문규. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-$\alpha$(PPAR- $\alpha$)와 죽상경화증. Biowave. 2006;8(17):1-8.
  28. Bastard JP, Maachi M, Lagathu C, Kim MJ, Caron M, Vidal H, Capeau J, Feve B. Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2006;17(1):4-12.
  29. Lefebvre P, Chinetti G, Fruchart JC, Staels B. Sorting out the roles of PPAR alpha in energy metabolism and vascular homeostasis. J Clin Invest. 2006;116(3):571-80. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI27989
  30. Holman GD, Kasuga M. From receptor to transporter: insulin signaling to glucose transport. Diabetologia. 1997; 40:991-1003. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001250050780
  31. Watson RT, Pessin JE. Intracellular organization of insulin signaling and GLUT4 translocation. Recent Prog Horm Res. 2001;56:175-94. https://doi.org/10.1210/rp.56.1.175
  32. Park JS, Lee BC, Doo HK, Ahn YM, Ahn SY. The effects of supungsunki-hwan on high fat, high carbohydrate diet- induced obese type 2 diabetic mouse model. Korean J Orient Int Med 2009;30(2):257-69.
  33. Rossen ED, Sarraf P, Troy AE, Bradwin G, Moore K, Milstone DS, Spiegelman BM, Mortensen RM. PPAR gamma is required for the differentiatio of adipose tissue in vivo and in vitro. Mol Cell. 1999;4:611-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80211-7
  34. Lee KH, Jeong HS, Choi KY, Kim, Lee DS, Kang GY, Jeon HJ. Passociation study of the peroxisome proliferators- activated receptor ${\gamma}2$ Pro12Ala polymorphism with diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes. 2008;32:402-8.
  35. Rossen ED, Sarraf P, Troy AE, Bradwin G, Moore K, Milstone DS, Spiegelman BM, Mortensen RM. PPAR gamma is required for the differentiatio of adipose tissue in vivo and in vitro. Mol Cell. 1999;4:611-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80211-7
  36. Levy JR, Davenport B, Clore JN, Stevens W. Lipid metabolism and resistin gene expression in insulin-resistant Fischer 344 rat. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 282(E):623-6.
  37. Zhang J, Qin Y, Zheng X, Qiu J, Gong L, Mao H, Jia W, Guo J. The relationship between human serum resistin level and body fat content, plasma glucose as well as blood pressure. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2002; 82:1609-12.
  38. Fukuhara A, Matsuda M, Nishizawa M, Segawa K, Tanaka M, Kishimoto K, Matsuki Y, Murakami M, Ichisaka T, Murakami H, Watanabe E, Takagi T, Akiyoshi M, Ohtsubo T, Kihara S, Yamashita S, Makishima M, Funahashi T, Yamanaka S, Hiramatsu R, Matsuzawa Y, Shimomura I. Visfatin: a protein secreted by visceral fat that mimics the effects of insulin. Science. 2005;307:426. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1097243
  39. Berndt J, Kloting N, Kralisch S, Kovacs P, Fasshauer M, Schon MR, Stumvoll M, Bluher M. Plasma visfatin concentrations and fat depot-specific mRNA expression in humans. Diabetes. 2005;54:2911. https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.54.10.2911