Pain, Depression, Body Mass Index in Conscripts with Chronic Low Back Pain in South Korea

DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Lee, Ju Hwan;Um, Ki Mai;Wang, Jung San;Lee, Sa Gyeom;Park, Joo Hyun;Koo, Ja Pung;Kim, Jung Hee;Lee, Suk Hee;Moon, Ok Kon

  • 투고 : 2013.11.28
  • 심사 : 2014.02.26
  • 발행 : 2014.05.30

초록

This study is a cross-sectional study for conscripts with chronic low back pain, where it is designed to investigate general characteristics that conscripts with chronic low back pain carry, and it is also aimed to analyze the correlation as well as discrepancy within pain, depression and body mass index depending on their ranks. In this study, 90 Korean conscripts with chronic low back pain participated. And in order to analyze general characteristics as well as pain, depression and body mass index of the subjects, this study adopted a survey questionnaire upon general characteristics, and it also employed Visual Analogue Scacle(VAS) and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression(CES-D) Scale which have proven their credibility, where BMI values for the subjects were calculated based on 'Asian Pacific standard' Body Mass Index(BMI). From the general characteristics exhibited by the subjects through this study, average age and average height of the subjects were $20.78{\pm}1.41$ and $175.97{\pm}5.34$ respectively; and corporals displayed the highest ratio of 42% with the chronic low back pain while 40% of the total subjects experienced the duration of the illness less than 6 to 9 months. Moreover, 57.8% of all subjects were reportedly suffering moderate pain, and 48% exhibited depression while 49% carried BMI value between 18.5 and $22.9kg/m^2$(normal range). Based on the analysis of correlation among pain, depression, discrepancy of BMI depending on the ranks and each independent variable, it appears that there is no significant difference amongst the ranks, and there is no correlation between independent variables; however, it was obvious that all groups divided by the ranks had a moderate pain(45-74mm), depression(${\geq}16$) and BMI value in normal range(18.5-22.9).

키워드

Chronic low back pain;Conscripts;Pain;Depression;BMI

참고문헌

  1. Wright LJ, Schur E, Noonan C, Ahumada S, Buchwald D & Afari N. Chronic pain, overweight, and obesity: findings from a community-based twin registry. The Journal of Pain 2010; 11(7): 628-635. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2009.10.004
  2. Kim TS, Pae CU, Hong CK, Kim JJ, Lee CU, Lee SJ & Lee C. Interrelationships among pain, disability, and psychological factors in young Korean conscripts with lumbar disc herniation. Military medicine 2006; 171(11): 1113-1116. https://doi.org/10.7205/MILMED.171.11.1113
  3. Currie SR & Wang J. Chronic back pain and major depression in the general Canadian population. Pain 2004; 107(1): 54-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2003.09.015
  4. Shaw WS, Means-Christensen AJ, Slater MA, Webster JS, Patterson TL, Grant I & Atkinson JH. Psychiatric disorders and risk of transition to chronicity in men with first onset low back pain. Pain Medicine 2010; 11(9): 1391-1400. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-4637.2010.00934.x
  5. Heir T & Eide G. Age, body composition, aerobic fitness and health condition as risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries in conscripts. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports 1996; 6(4): 222-227.
  6. Leboeuf-Yde C, Lemeunier N, Wedderkopp N, & Kjaer P. Evidence-based classification of low back pain in the general population: one-year data collected with SMS Track. Chiropractic & manual therapies 2013; 21(1): 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-709X-21-1
  7. Gaston-Johansson F. Measurement of pain: the psychometric properties of the Pain-O-Meter, a simple, inexpensive pain assessment tool that could change health care practices. Journal of pain and symptom management 1996; 12(3): 172-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/0885-3924(96)00128-5
  8. Jensen MP, Chen C & Brugger AM. Interpretation of visual analog scale ratings and change scores: a reanalysis of two clinical trials of postoperative pain. The Journal of Pain 2003; 4(7): 407-414. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1526-5900(03)00716-8
  9. Radloff LS. The CES-D scale a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied psychological measurement 1977; 1(3): 385-401. https://doi.org/10.1177/014662167700100306
  10. Chon KK, Choi SC & Yang BC. Integrated adaptation of CES-D in Korea. Korean J Health Psychol 2001; 6(1): 59-76.
  11. KorMedi(2009, November 20). http://www.kormedi.com/care/center/Default.aspx?category=041010&idx=188
  12. Knapik JJ, Reynolds KL & Harman E. Soldier load carriage: historical, physiological, biomechanical, and medical aspects. Military medicine 2004; 169(1): 45-56. https://doi.org/10.7205/MILMED.169.1.45
  13. Cohen SP, Gallagher RM, Davis SA, Griffith SR & Carragee EJ. Spine-area pain in military personnel: a review of epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. The Spine Journal 2012; 12(9): 833-842. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2011.10.010
  14. O'Connor FG & Marlowe SS. Low back pain in military basic trainees: A pilot study. Spine 1993; 18(10): 1351-1354. https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-199308000-00015
  15. Rohrer MH, Santos-Eggimann B, Paccaud F & Haller-Maslov E. Epidemiologic study of low back pain in 1398 Swiss conscripts between 1985 and 1992. European Spine Journal 1994; 3(1): 2-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02428309
  16. Visuri T, Ulaska J, Pulkkinen P, & Pekkarinen H. Impact of chronic low back pain on military service. Military medicine 2001; 166(7): 607-611. https://doi.org/10.1093/milmed/166.7.607
  17. Bronfort G, Maiers MJ, Evans RL, Schulz CA, Bracha Y, Svendsen KH & Transfeldt EE. Supervised exercise, spinal manipulation, and home exercise for chronic low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. The Spine Journal 2011; 11(7): 585-598. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2011.01.036
  18. Martell BA, O'Connor PG, Kerns RD, Becker WC, Morales KH, Kosten TR & Fiellin DA. Systematic review: opioid treatment for chronic back pain: prevalence, efficacy, and association with addiction. Annals of Internal Medicine 2007; 146(2): 116-127. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-146-2-200701160-00006
  19. Vlaeyen JW, Kole-Snijders AM, Boeren RG & Van Eek H. Fear of movement/(re) injury in chronic low back pain and its relation to behavioral performance. Pain 1995; 62(3): 363-372. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3959(94)00279-N
  20. Heuch I, Heuch I, Hagen K & Zwart JA. Body mass index as a risk factor for developing chronic low back pain: A Follow-up in the Nord-Trondelag Health Study. Spine 2013; 38(2): 133-139. https://doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0b013e3182647af2
  21. Huijnen IP, Verbunt JA, Peters ML, Delespaul P, Kindermans HP, Roelofs J & Seelen HA. Do depression and pain intensity interfere with physical activity in daily life in patients with Chronic Low Back Pain?. Pain 2010; 150(1): 161-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2010.04.021
  22. Lundberg M, Frennered K, Hagg O & Styf J. The impact of fear-avoidance model variables on disability in patients with specific or nonspecific chronic low back pain. Spine 2011; 36(19): 1547-1553. https://doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181f61660
  23. Ramond A, Bouton C, Richard I, Roquelaure Y, Baufreton C, Legrand E & Huez JF. Psychosocial risk factors for chronic low back pain in primary care-a systematic review. Family practice 2011; 28(1): 12-21. https://doi.org/10.1093/fampra/cmq072
  24. Sjolie AN. Low-back pain in adolescents is associated with poor hip mobility and high body mass index. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports 2004; 14(3): 168-175. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2003.00334.x
  25. Nilsen TIL, Holtermann A & Mork PJ. Physical exercise, body mass index, and risk of chronic pain in the low back and neck/shoulders: Longitudinal data from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study. American journal of epidemiology 2011; 174(3): 267-273. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwr087
  26. Onyike CU, Crum RM, Lee HB, Lyketsos CG & Eaton WW. Is obesity associated with major depression? Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. American Journal of Epidemiology 2003; 158(12): 1139-1147. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwg275
  27. McCarthy LH, Bigal ME, Katz M, Derby C & Lipton RB. Chronic pain and obesity in elderly people: results from the Einstein aging study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2009; 57(1): 115-119. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.02089.x
  28. Marcus DA. Obesity and the impact of chronic pain. The Clinical journal of pain 2004; 20(3): 186-191. https://doi.org/10.1097/00002508-200405000-00009
  29. Lee JH, Kim JI. The Relationship between Low Back Pain, Depression and Adjustment to Military Life in Soldiers. journal of military nursing research 2011; 29(1): 138-147.
  30. Downie WW, Leatham PA, Rhind VM, Wright V, Branco JA & Anderson JA. Studies with pain rating scales. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 1978; 37(4): 378-381. https://doi.org/10.1136/ard.37.4.378
  31. McCormack HM, Horne DJ & Sheather S. Clinical applications of visual analogue scales: a critical review. Psychol Med 1988; 18(4): 1007-1019. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291700009934
  32. Negrini S, Giovannoni S, Minozzi S, Barneschi G, Bonaiuti D, Bussotti A & Violante FS. Diagnostic therapeutic flow-charts for low back pain patients: the Italian clinical guidelines. Europa medicophysica 2006; 42(2): 151.
  33. Waddell G. The epidemiology of back pain. The Back Pain Revolution. Churchill Livingston, Edinburgh 2004; 71-89.
  34. Asmundson GJ, Norton PJ & Vlaeyen JW. Fearavoidance models of chronic pain: an overview. Understanding and treating fear of pain 2004; 3-24.
  35. Hestbaek L, Larsen K, Weidick F & Leboeuf-Yde C. Low back pain in military recruits in relation to social background and previous low back pain. A cross-sectional and prospective obsevational survey. BMC musculoskeletal disorders 2005; 6(1): 25. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-6-25
  36. LEE KH. exploratory study on the factors contributing to the development of the low back pain in military enlisted men : centered on the low back pain patients in milit. YONSEI UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL 1990.
  37. Dworkin RH & Gitlin MJ. Clinical aspects of depression in chronic pain patients. The Clinical journal of pain 1991; 7(2): 79-94. https://doi.org/10.1097/00002508-199106000-00004
  38. Mehling WE, Hamel KA, Acree M, Byl N & Hecht, FM. Randomized controlled trial of breath therapy for patients with chronic low-back pain. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 2005; 11(4): 44.
  39. De Wit LM, van Straten A, van Herten M, Penninx BW & Cuijpers P. Depression and body mass index, a u-shaped association. BMC public health 2009; 9(1): 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-9-14
  40. Luppino FS, de Wit LM, Bouvy PF, Stijnen T, Cuijpers P, Penninx BW & Zitman FG. Overweight, obesity, and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Archives of general psychiatry 2010; 67(3): 220. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.2
  41. Shiri R, Karppinen J, Leino-Arjas P, Solovieva S & Viikari-Juntura E. The association between obesity and low back pain: a meta-analysis. American journal of epidemiology 2010; 171(2): 135-154. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwp356
  42. Fishbain DA, Cutler R, Rosomoff HL & Rosomoff, RS. Chronic pain-associated depression: antecedent or consequence of chronic pain? A review. The Clinical journal of pain 1997; 13(2): 116-137. https://doi.org/10.1097/00002508-199706000-00006
  43. Toda Y, Segal N, Toda T, Morimoto T & Ogawa R. Lean body mass and body fat distribution in participants with chronic low back pain. Archives of internal medicine 2000; 160(21): 3265-3269. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.160.21.3265
  44. Yang JM. Low-Back Pain in Soldiers. Graduate school of public health yonsei university 1995.