Effects of Dietary Garlic Powder on Growth, Feed Utilization and Whole Body Composition Changes in Fingerling Sterlet Sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus

  • Lee, Dong-Hoon (Gyeonggi Province Maritime and Fisheries Research Institute) ;
  • Lim, Seong-Ryul (Gyeonggi Province Maritime and Fisheries Research Institute) ;
  • Han, Jung-Jo (Gyeonggi Province Maritime and Fisheries Research Institute) ;
  • Lee, Sang-Woo (Gyeonggi Province Maritime and Fisheries Research Institute) ;
  • Ra, Chang-Six (College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Kim, Jeong-Dae (College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University)
  • Received : 2014.02.06
  • Accepted : 2014.05.28
  • Published : 2014.09.01


A 12 week growth study was carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic powder (GP) on growth, feed utilization and whole body composition changes of fingerling sterlet sturgeon Acipenser ruthenus (averaging weight, 5.5 g). Following a 24-h fasting, 540 fish were randomly distributed to each of 18 tanks (30 fish/tank) under a semi-recirculation freshwater system. The GP of 0.5% (GP0.5), 1% (GP1), 1.5% (GP1.5), 2% (GP2) and 3% (GP3) was added to the control diet (GP0) containing 43% protein and 16% lipid. After the feeding trial, weight gain (WG) of fish fed GP1.5, GP2 and GP3 were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of fish fed GP0, GP0.5 and GP1. Feed efficiency and specific growth rate (SGR) showed a similar trend to WG. Protein efficiency ratio of fish fed GP1.5, GP2, and GP3 were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of fish groups fed the other diets. A significant difference (p<0.05) was found in whole body composition (moisture, crude protein, crude lipid, ash, and fiber) of fish at the end of the experiment. Significantly higher (p<0.05) protein and lipid retention efficiencies (PRE and LRE) were also found in GP1.5, GP2, and GP3 groups. Broken-line regression model analysis and second order polynomial regression model analysis relation on the basis of SGR and WG indicated that the dietary optimal GP level could be greater than 1.77% and 1.79%, but less than 2.95% and 3.18% in fingerling sterlet sturgeon. The present study suggested that dietary GP for fingerling sterlet sturgeon could positively affect growth performance and protein retention.


  1. Horton, G. M. J., D. B. Blethen, and B. M. Prasad. 1991. The effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on feed palatability of horses and feed consumption, selected performance, and blood parameters in sheep and swine. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 71:607-610.
  2. Hung, S. S. O., F. S. Conte, and F. Frost. 1998. Growth of white sturgeon fed seven commercial feeds. Aquaculture 161:89-93.
  3. Jayaprakas, V. and J. Eupharsia. 1996. Growth performance of Labeo rohita (Ham.) Livol (IHF-1000) an herbal product. Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad. 63:1-10.
  4. Jegede, T. 2012. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on growth, nutrient utilization, resistance and survival of Tilapia zillii (Gervais 1852) Fingerlings. J. Agricult. Sci. 4:269-274.
  5. Khalil, R. H., B. M. Nadia, and M. K. Soliman. 2001. Effects of Biogen and Levamisol Hcl on the immune response of cultured Oreochromis niloticus to Aeromonas hydrophila vaccine. Beni-Suef Vet. Med. J., Egypt, XI(2):381-392.
  6. Khattab, Y. A., A. M. S. Shalaby, S. M. Sharaf, H. I. EL-Marakby, and E. H. Rizhalla. 2004. The physiological changes and growth performance of the Nile tilapia Oerochromis niloticus after feeding with Biogen(R) as growth promoter. Egypt J. Aquatic. Biol. Fish 8:145-158.
  7. Krayushkina, L. S. 2006. Considerations on evolutionary mechanisms of osmotic and ionic regulation in Acipenseridae: An overview. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 22:70-76.
  8. Lee, D. H., C. S. Ra, Y. H. Song, K. I. Sung, and J. D. Kim. 2012. Effect of dietary garlic extracts on growth, feed utilization and whole body composition of juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus). Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 25:577-583.
  9. Citarasu, T., R. R. Sekar, M. M. Babu, and M. P. Marian. 2002. Developing artemia enriched herbal diet for producing quality larvae in Penaeus monodon. Asian Fish. Sci. 15:21-32.
  10. Citarasu, T. 2010. Herbal biomedicines: a new opportunity for aquaculture industry. Aquacult. Int. 18:403-414.
  11. Diab, A. S., G. O. El-Nagar, and Y. M. Abd-El-Hady. 2002. Evaluation of Nigella sativa L (black seeds; baraka), Allium sativum (garlic) and BIOGEN as feed additives on growth performance and immunostimulants of O. niloticus fingerlings. Suez Canal Vet. Med. J. pp. 745-775.
  12. Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple 'F' tests. Biometrics 11:1-42.
  13. El-Dakar, A. Y., G. D. I. Hassanien, S. S. Gad, and S. E. Sakr. 2004a. Use of medical and aromatic plants in fish diets: I. Effect of dried marjoram leaves on performance of hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus${\times}$Oreochromis auraus, fingerlings. J. Egypt. Acad. Soc. Environ. Dev. (B. Aquacult.). 5:67-83.
  14. El-Dakar, A. Y., G. D. I. Hassanien, S. S. Gad, and S. E. Sakr. 2004b. Use of medical and aromatic plants in fish diets: 2. Effect of dried basil leaves on performance of hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus${\times}$Oreochromis auraus, fingerlings. 3rd Inter. Conf. on Animal Production and Health in Semi-Arid Areas. Suez Canal University, Suez Canal, Egypt. pp. 265-277.
  15. Fernandez-Navarro, M., J. Peragon, F. Esteban, M. Higuera, and J. A. Lupianez. 2006. Maslinic acid as a feed additive to stimulate growth and hepatic protein-turnover rates in rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 144:130-140.
  16. Foushee, D. B., J. Ruffin, and U. Banerjee. 1982. Garlic as a natural agent for the treatment of hypertension: A preliminary report. Cytobios. 34:145-152.
  17. Freitas, R., J. B. Fonseca, R. T. Soares, H. S. Rostagn, and P. R. Soares. 2001. Utilization of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as growth promoter of broilers. Rev. Bras. Zootec. 30:761-765.
  18. Al-Salahy, M. B. and A. A. B. Mahmoud. 2003. Metabolic and histological studies on the effect of garlic administration on the carnivorous fish Chrysichthys auratus. Egypt J. Bot. 5:94-107.
  19. AOAC. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Arlington, VA, USA.
  20. Abou-Zeid, S. M. 2002. The Effect of Some Medical Plant on Reproductive and Productive Performance of Nile tilapia Fish. Ph.D. Thesis, Cairo University, Faculty of Agriculture. Cairo, Egypt. p. 212.
  21. Abdel-Hakim, N. F., M. M. E. Lashin, A. A. M. Al-Azab, and A. M. Ashry. 2010. Effect of fresh or dried garlic as a natural feed supplement on growth performance and nutrients utilization of the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticas). Egypt J. Aquat. Biol. Fish 14:19-38.
  22. Bampidis, V. A., V. Christodoulou, E. Christaki, P. Florou-Paneri, and A. B. Spais. 2005. Effect of dietary garlic bulb and garlic husk supplementation on performance and carcass characteristics of growing lambs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 121:273-283.
  23. Bhosale, S. V., M. P. Bhilave, and S. B. Nadaf. 2010. Formulation of Fish Feed using Ingredients from Plant Sources. Res. J. Agric. Sci. 1:284-287.
  24. Bordia, A., S. K. Verma, and K. C. Srivastava. 1996. Effect of garlic on platelet aggregation in humans: A study in healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease. Prostoglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids 55:201-205.
  25. Chi, M. S., E. T. Koh, and T. J. Steward. 1982. Effects of garlic on lipid metabolism in rats fed cholesterol or lard. J. Nutr. 112:241-248.
  26. Citarasu, T., M. M. Babu., S. M. J. Punitha., K. Venket Ramalingam, and M. P. Marian. 2001. Control of pathogenic bacteria using herbal biomedical products in the larva culture system of Penaeus monodon. International Conference on Advanced Technologies in Fisheries and Marine Sciences. M. S. University. Tirunelveli, India. 104 p.
  27. Shalaby, A. M., Y. M. Khattab, and A. M. Abdel rahman. 2006. Effects of garlic (Allium sativum) and chloramphenicol on growth performance, physiological parameters and survival of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis. 12:172-201.
  28. Shalaby, S. M. M. 2004. Response of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings to diets supplemented with different levels of fenugreek seeds (Hulba). J. Agric. Mansoura Univ. 29:2231-2242.
  29. Shalaby, S. M. M., A. I. Abd Elmonem, and A. Y. El-Dakar. 2003. Enhancement of growth performance, feed and nutrient utilization of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), using of licorice roots (Erksous) as a feed attractive. J. Egypt. Acad. Soc. Environ. Develop. (B-Aquaculture), 4:119-142.
  30. Shin, S. H. and M. K. Kim. 2004. Effect of dried powders or ethanol extracts of garlic flesh and peel on lipid metabolism and antithrombiogenic capacity in 16-month-old rats. J. Nutr. Health. 37:515-524.
  31. Sivaram, V., M. M. Babu, G. Immanuel, S. Murugadass, T. Citarasu, and M. P. Marian. 2004. Growth and immune response of juvenile greasy groupers (Epinephelus tauvina) fed with herbal antibacterial active principle supplemented diets against Vibrio harveyi infections. Aquaculture 237:9-20.
  32. Soltan, M. A. and S. M. El-Laithy. 2008. Effect of probiotics and some spices as feed additives on the performance and behaviour of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Egypt. J. Aquat. Biol. Fish. 12:63-80.
  33. SPSS. Inc. 1999. SPSS Base 10.0 for Windows User's Guide. SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, USA.
  34. Agarwal, K. C. 1996. Therapeutic actions of garlic constituents. Med. Res. Rev. 16:111-124.<111::AID-MED4>3.0.CO;2-5
  35. Agusti, K. T. 1996. Therapeutic values of onion (Allium cepa L) and garlic (Allium sativum L). Indian J. Exp. Biol. 34:634-640.
  36. Wanapat, M., P. Khejornsart, P. Pakdee, and S. Wanapat. 2008. Effect of supplementation of garlic powder on rumen ecology and digestibility of nutrients in ruminants. J. Sci. Food Agric. 88:2231-2237.
  37. Yeh, Y. Y. and L. Liu. 2001. Cholesterol-Lowering effect of garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds: Human and animal studies. J. Nutr. 131:9895-9935.
  38. Zeitoun, I. H., D. E. Ullrey, D. E. Magae, J. L. Gill, And W. G. Bergen. 1976. Quantifying nutrient requirements of fish. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada. 33:167-172.
  39. Lim, S. R. 2009. The Optimum Dietary Protein Level and the Optimum Protein to Energy Ratio in Sterlet Sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus. Ph.D. Thesis. Pukyong National University, Busan, Korea. pp. 82-85.
  40. Macmahon, F. G. and R. Vargus. 1993. Can garlic lower blood pressure. A pilot study. Pharmacotherapy 13:406-407.
  41. Metwally, M. A. A. 2009. Effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on some antioxidant activities in tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus). World J. Fish Mar. Sci. 1:56-64.
  42. Nya, E. J. and B. Austin. 2009. Use of garlic, Allium sativum, to control Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J. Fish Dis. 32:963-970.
  43. Pait, A. S. and J. O. Nelson. 2003. Vitellogenesis in male Fundulus heteroclitus (Killifish) induced by selected estrogenic compounds. Aquat. Toxicol. 64: 331-342.
  44. Robbins, K. R., H. W. Norton, and D. H. Baker. 1979. Estimation of nutrient requirements from growth data. J. Nutr. 109:1710-1714.
  45. Sahu, S., B. K. Das, B. K. Mishra, J. Pradhan, and N. Sarangi. 2007. Effect of Allium sativum on the immunity and survival of Labeo rohita infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 23:80-86.
  46. Tatara, M. R., E. Sliwa, K. Dudek, A. Gawron, and T. Piersiak. 2008. Aged garlic extract and allicin improve performance and gastrointestinal tract development of piglets reared in artificial sow. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med. 15:63-69.

Cited by

  1. ) fry vol.47, pp.9, 2015,