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Semi-domesticated and Irreplaceable Genetic Resource Gayal (Bos frontalis) Needs Effective Genetic Conservation in Bangladesh: A Review

  • Uzzaman, Md. Rasel (Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Bhuiyan, Md. Shamsul Alam (Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Bangladesh Agricultural University) ;
  • Edea, Zewdu (Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Kim, Kwan-Suk (Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University)
  • Received : 2014.03.03
  • Accepted : 2014.06.09
  • Published : 2014.09.01

Abstract

Several studies arduously reported that gayal (Bos frontalis) is an independent bovine species. The population size is shrinking across its distribution. In Bangladesh, it is the only wild relative of domestic cattle and also a less cared animal. Their body size is much bigger than Bangladeshi native cattle and has prominent beef type characters along with the ability to adjust in any adverse environmental conditions. Human interactions and manipulation of biodiversity is affecting the habitats of gayals in recent decades. Besides, the only artificial reproduction center for gayals, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), has few animals and could not carry out its long term conservation scheme due to a lack of an objective based scientific mission as well as financial support. This indicates that the current population is much more susceptible to stochastic events which might be natural catastrophes, environmental changes or mutations. Further reduction of the population size will sharply reduce genetic diversity. In our recent investigation with 80K indicine single nucleotide polymorphism chip, the $F_{IS}$ (within-population inbreeding) value was reported as $0.061{\pm}0.229$ and the observed ($0.153{\pm}0.139$) and expected ($0.148{\pm}0.143$) heterozygosities indicated a highly inbred and less diverse gayal population in Bangladesh. Prompt action is needed to tape the genetic information of this semi-domesticated bovine species with considerable sample size and try to investigate its potentials together with native zebu cattle for understanding the large phenotypic variations, improvement and conservation of this valuable creature.

Keywords

Bangladesh;Gayal;Conservation;Semi-domestic;Genetic Resource

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