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The Study on the Sexual Difference in the Cause and the Time of Casualty and in the Size of the Fairy Pitta (Pitta nympha) through DNA Analysis in Republic of Korea

DNA 분석에 의한 팔색조의 암수 구분 및 암수별 피해 현황 그리고 크기 차이에 관한 연구

  • Kim, Eun-Mi (Warm-temperate and Subtropical Forest Research Center, Korea Forest Research Institute) ;
  • Jeon, Yeon-Seon (Department of Environment Engineering, Ewha Womans University) ;
  • Jeong, Gil-Sang (Department of Ecoscience, Ewha Womans University) ;
  • Kim, Se-Jae (Department of Biology, Jeju National University) ;
  • Kang, Chang-Wan (The Korea Association For Bird Protection Jeju Branch) ;
  • Oh, Mi-Rea (The Korea Association For Bird Protection Jeju Branch) ;
  • Noh, Pu-Reum (Department of Ecoscience, Ewha Womans University) ;
  • Won, Hyun-Kyu (Warm-temperate and Subtropical Forest Research Center, Korea Forest Research Institute)
  • 김은미 (국립산림과학원 난대아열대산림연구소) ;
  • 전연선 (이화여자대학교 환경공학과) ;
  • 정길상 (이화여자대학교 에코과학부) ;
  • 김세재 (제주대학교 생물학과) ;
  • 강창완 (한국조류보호협회 제주지회) ;
  • 오미래 (한국조류보호협회 제주지회) ;
  • 노푸름 (이화여자대학교 에코과학부) ;
  • 원현규 (국립산림과학원 난대아열대산림연구소)
  • Received : 2013.12.17
  • Accepted : 2014.08.12
  • Published : 2014.08.29

Abstract

The differentiation of sex is important for species preservation. However, Fairy Pitta is sexually monomorphic and sex of an individual is indistinguishable with its external characteristics. We determined the sex of Fairy Pitta through DNA analysis and investigated the causes and time of injury and mortality and the size based on sex. We collected 21 samples at Jeju Island, Korean Peninsula from 2004 to 2013 and extracted DNA from them and amplified chromo helicase DNA-binding gene from Z and W chromosomes through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). We confirmed their sex with the banding pattern through Agarose gel electrophoresis, i.e. male (ZZ): one banded and female (ZW) two banded. We distinguished the sex of 17 of 21 samples resulting in 9 males and 8 females. Most casualties were recorded in adult of both sexes. Causes of injury and mortality proved that female casualties occurred from window strikes, dehydration, car accident, predation by natural enemies, and male occurred from window strikes, car accident and dehydration. The time of injury and mortality in adults differ by sex. There was no difference between sexes in any of the six size parameters. As the time of injury and mortality differ by sex, the survey on the role and ecological nature by sex in breeding season must be carried out in the future. External measurements may not be reliable for sexing of Fairy Pitta and other traits such as vocal or characteristics are required to identify the sex of individuals in the field.

Keywords

Preservation;DNA;Sex;Size;Adult;Time of injury and mortality

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