- Volume 23 Issue 8
DOI QR Code
The Study on the Sexual Difference in the Cause and the Time of Casualty and in the Size of the Fairy Pitta (Pitta nympha) through DNA Analysis in Republic of Korea
DNA 분석에 의한 팔색조의 암수 구분 및 암수별 피해 현황 그리고 크기 차이에 관한 연구
- Kim, Eun-Mi (Warm-temperate and Subtropical Forest Research Center, Korea Forest Research Institute) ;
- Jeon, Yeon-Seon (Department of Environment Engineering, Ewha Womans University) ;
- Jeong, Gil-Sang (Department of Ecoscience, Ewha Womans University) ;
- Kim, Se-Jae (Department of Biology, Jeju National University) ;
- Kang, Chang-Wan (The Korea Association For Bird Protection Jeju Branch) ;
- Oh, Mi-Rea (The Korea Association For Bird Protection Jeju Branch) ;
- Noh, Pu-Reum (Department of Ecoscience, Ewha Womans University) ;
- Won, Hyun-Kyu (Warm-temperate and Subtropical Forest Research Center, Korea Forest Research Institute)
- 김은미 (국립산림과학원 난대아열대산림연구소) ;
- 전연선 (이화여자대학교 환경공학과) ;
- 정길상 (이화여자대학교 에코과학부) ;
- 김세재 (제주대학교 생물학과) ;
- 강창완 (한국조류보호협회 제주지회) ;
- 오미래 (한국조류보호협회 제주지회) ;
- 노푸름 (이화여자대학교 에코과학부) ;
- 원현규 (국립산림과학원 난대아열대산림연구소)
- Received : 2013.12.17
- Accepted : 2014.08.12
- Published : 2014.08.29
The differentiation of sex is important for species preservation. However, Fairy Pitta is sexually monomorphic and sex of an individual is indistinguishable with its external characteristics. We determined the sex of Fairy Pitta through DNA analysis and investigated the causes and time of injury and mortality and the size based on sex. We collected 21 samples at Jeju Island, Korean Peninsula from 2004 to 2013 and extracted DNA from them and amplified chromo helicase DNA-binding gene from Z and W chromosomes through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). We confirmed their sex with the banding pattern through Agarose gel electrophoresis, i.e. male (ZZ): one banded and female (ZW) two banded. We distinguished the sex of 17 of 21 samples resulting in 9 males and 8 females. Most casualties were recorded in adult of both sexes. Causes of injury and mortality proved that female casualties occurred from window strikes, dehydration, car accident, predation by natural enemies, and male occurred from window strikes, car accident and dehydration. The time of injury and mortality in adults differ by sex. There was no difference between sexes in any of the six size parameters. As the time of injury and mortality differ by sex, the survey on the role and ecological nature by sex in breeding season must be carried out in the future. External measurements may not be reliable for sexing of Fairy Pitta and other traits such as vocal or characteristics are required to identify the sex of individuals in the field.
Preservation;DNA;Sex;Size;Adult;Time of injury and mortality
- An, J., Lee, M. Y., Min, M. S., Lee, M. H., Lee, H., 2007, A molecular genetic approach for species identification of mammals and sex determination of birds in a forensic case of poaching from South Korea, Forensic. Sci. Int., 167, 59-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.12.031
- Becker, P. H., Ezard, T. H. G., Ludwigs, J. D., Sauer-Gurth, H., Wink, M., 2008, Population sex ratio shift from fledging to recruitment: consequences for demography in a philopatric seabird, Oikos, 117, 60-68. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2007.0030-1299.16287.x
- BirdLife International, 2001, Threatened birds of Asia: The birdlife international red data book, BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK, 1937-1938.
- Brazil, M., 2009, The birds of East Asia: China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, and Russia, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 290-291.
- Brown M. B., Brown C. R., 2009, Blood sampling reduces annual survival in Cliff Swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), Auk, 126, 853-861. https://doi.org/10.1525/auk.2009.09048
- Croxall, J. P., 1995, Sexual size dimorphism in seabirds, Oikos, 73, 399-403. https://doi.org/10.2307/3545964
- Bugoni, L., Griffiths, K., Furness, R.W., 2011, Sexbiased incidental mortality of albatrosses and petrels in longline fisheries: differential distributions at sea or differential access to baits mediated by sexual size dimorphism?, J. Ornithol., 152, 261-268. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10336-010-0577-x
- Cerit, H., Avanus, K., 2007, Sex determination by CHDW and CHDZ genes of avian sex chromosomes in Nymphicus hollandicus, Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 31(6), 371-374.
- Chang, H. W., Chou, T. C., Gu, D. L., Cheng, C. A., 2008, An improved PCR method for gender identification of eagles, Mol. Cell Probes, 22, 184- 188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcp.2007.12.004
- Double, M., Olsen, P., 1997, Simplied polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based sexing assists conservation of an endangered owl, the Norfolk Island Boobook Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata, Bird Conserv. Int., 7, 283-286.
- Donald, P. F., 2007, Adult sex ratios in wild bird populations, Ibis, 149, 671-692. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1474-919X.2007.00724.x
- Ellegren, H., Carmichael, A., 2001, Multiple and independent cessation of recombination between avian sex chromosomes, Genetics, 158, 325-331.
- Erritzoe, J., 2004, Order Passeriformes. Family Pittidae (Pittas). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliot, A., Sargatal, J.(Eds.), Handbook of the Birds of the World: Broadbills to Tapaculos, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
- Erritzoe, J., Erritzoe, H. B., 1998, Pittas of the world: A Monograph on the Pitta Family, The Lutterworth Press, Cambridge, U.K.
- Fletcher, K., Foster, R., 2010, Use of external biometrics to sex Carrion Crow Corvus corone, Rook C. frugilegus and Western Jackdaw C. monedula in Northern England, Ringing & Migration, 25, 47-51. https://doi.org/10.1080/03078698.2010.9674414
- Ito, H., Sudo-Yamaji, A., Abe, M., Murase, T., Tsubota, T., 2003, Sex identification by alternative polymerase chain reaction methods in Falconiformes, Zool. Sci., 20, 339-344. https://doi.org/10.2108/zsj.20.339
- Griffiths, R., Double, M. C., Orr, K., Dawson, R. G. J., 1998, A DNA test to sex most birds, Mol. Ecol., 7, 1071-1075. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-294x.1998.00389.x
- Handley, L. J., Ceplitis, H., Ellegren, H., 2004, Evolutionary strata on the chicken Z chromosome: implications for sex chromosome evolution, Genetics, 167, 367-376. https://doi.org/10.1534/genetics.167.1.367
- Huang, X., Zhou, X., Lin, Q., Fang, W., Chen, X., 2012, An efficient molecular sexing of the vulnerable Chinese egret (Egretta eulophotes) from feces samples, Conservation Genet. Resour., 4, 391-393. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12686-011-9557-6
- Kemp, A., Bruce, M., 2003, Pittas. in: Perrins, C.(ed), The New Encyclopedia of Birds, Oxford Univeristy Press, Oxford, 418-420.
- Kim, E. M., Choi, C. Y., Kang, C. W., 2013, Causes of injury and mortality of Fairy Pitta Pitta nympha on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea, Forktail, 29, 104-107.
- Kim, E. M., Park, C. R., Kang, C. W., Kim, S. J., 2012, The nestling diet of fairy pitta Pitta nympha on Jeju Island, Korea, Open Journal of Ecology, 2(4), 178-182. https://doi.org/10.4236/oje.2012.24021
- Komdeur, J., Daan, S., Tinbergen, J., Mateman, C., 1997, Extreme adaptive modification in sex ratio of the Seychelles warbler's eggs, Nature, 385, 522-525. https://doi.org/10.1038/385522a0
- Lambert, F., Woodcock, M., 1996, Pittas, Broadbills and Asities, Pica Press, Sussex, 162-166.
- Lens, L., Galbusera, P., Brooks, T., Waiyaki, E., Schenck, T., 1998, Highly skewed sex ratios in the critically endangered Taita thrush as revealed by CHD genes, Biodiversity and Conservation, 7, 869-873. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008815606931
- McDonald P. G., Griffith S. C., 2011, To pluck or not to pluck: the hidden ethical and scientific costs of relying on feathers as a primary source of DNA, J. Avian Biol, 42, 197-203. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-048X.2011.05365.x
- Loery, G., Nichols, J.D., Hines, J.E., 1997, Capture-recapture analysis of a wintering blackcapped chickadee population in Connecticut, 1958-1993, Auk, 114, 431-442. https://doi.org/10.2307/4089244
- Lok, A. F. S. L., Khor, K. T. N., Lim, K. C., Subaraj, R., 2009, Pittas(Pittidae) of Singapore, NATURE IN SINGAPORE, 2, 155-165.
- Mayr, E., 1939, The sex ratio in wild birds, Am. Nat., 73, 156-179. https://doi.org/10.1086/280824
- Mees, G. F., 1977, Additional records of birds of from Formosa (Taiwan), Zoologische mededelingen, 51, 223-264.
- National Institute of Biological Resources(NIBR), 2013, The Study on the drawing up of a dendrogram and DNA barcode analysis on birds in Korea, No. 11-1480592-000414-01, National Institute of Biological Resources, Seoul, Korea.
- Perrins, C. M., 1991, Constraints on the demographic parameters of bird populations. In: Hirons, G. J. M. (ed.), Bird Population Studies: Relevance to Conservation and Management, Oxford University Press, New York, 190-208.
- Robertson, B. C., Gemmell, N. J., 2006, PCR-based sexing in conservation biology: Wrong answers from an accurate methodology?, Conservation Genetics, 7, 267-271. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10592-005-9105-6
- Roth, R. R., Johnson, R. K., 1993, Long-term dynamics of a wood thrush population breeding in a forest fragment, Auk, 110, 37-48.
- Sheldon L. D., Chin E. H., Gill S. H., Schmaltz G., Newman A. E. M., Soma K. K., 2008, Effects of blood collection on wild birds: an update, J. Avian Biol ., 39, 369-378. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0908-8857.2008.04295.x
- Sodhi, N. S., 2002, A comparison of bird communities of two fragmented and two continuous southeast Asian rainforests, Biodiversity and Conservation, 11, 1105-1119. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015869106512
- Yoo, S. H., Lee, K. S., Park, C. H., 2010, Accident cases and causes of electric line collision of Cranes at Cheorwon, Korea, Kor. J. Orni., 17(4), 331-343.
- Voss M., Shutler D., Werner J., 2010, A hard look at blood sampling of birds, Auk, 127, 704-708. https://doi.org/10.1525/auk.2010.10033
- Wellbrock A. H. J., Bauch C., Rozman J., Witte K., 2012, Buccal swabs as a reliable source of DNA for sexing young and adult common swifts (Apus apus), J. Ornithol., 153, 991-994. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10336-012-0843-1