- Volume 30 Issue 3
Stand Density Diagrams (SDD) are average stand-level models which graphically illustrate the relationship between yield, density and mortality throughout the various stages of forest development. These are useful tools for designing, displaying and evaluating alternative density regimes in even-aged forest ecosystems to achieve a desired future condition. This contribution presents an example of a SDD that has been constructed for teak forests of Karnataka in southern India. The relationship between stand density, dominant height, quadratic mean diameter, relative spacing and stand volume is represented in one graph. The relative spacing index was used to characterize the population density. Two equations were fitted simultaneously to the data collected from 27 sample plots measured annually for three years: one relates quadratic mean diameter with stand density and dominant height while the other relates total stand volume with quadratic mean diameter, stand density and dominant height.
stand density diagram;yield;relative spacing;mortality;Tectona grandis
- Jack SB, Long JN. 1996. Linkages between silviculture and ecol ogy: an analysis of density management diagrams. For Ecol Mgmt 86: 205-220. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(96)03770-X
- Kumar BM, Long JN, Kumar P. 1995. A density management diagram for teak plantations of Kerala in peninsular india. For Ecol Mgmt 74: 125-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1127(94)03499-M
- Lilieholm RJ, Long JN, Patla S. 1884. Assessment of goshawk nest area habitat using stand density index. Stud Avian Biol 16: 18-23.
- Long JN. 1985. A practical approach to density management. For Chron 61: 23-27. https://doi.org/10.5558/tfc61023-1
- Long JN, McCarter JB, Jack SB. 1988. A modified density management diagram for coastal Douglas-fir. Western J Appl For 3: 88-89.
- Long JN, Shaw JD. 2005. A Density Management Diagram for Even-aged Ponderosa Pine Stands. J Appl For 20: 205-215.
- Luis JFS, Fonseca TF. 2004. The allometric model in the stand density management of Pinus pinaster Ait in Portugal Ann For Sci 61: 807-814. https://doi.org/10.1051/forest:2004077
- Anta MB, Alvarez Gonzalez JG. 2005. Development of a stand density management diagram for even-aged pedunculate oak stands and its use in designing thinning schedules. For 78: 209-216.
- Archibald DJ, Bowling C. 1995. Jack pine density management diagram for boreal ontario. OMNR, Northeast and Northwest Science and Technology. TN-005 (NWST TN-31).
- Castedo-Dorado F, Crecente-Campo F, Alvarez-Alvarez P, Barrio-Anta M. 2009. Development of a stand density management diagram for radiata pine stands including assessment of stand stability. For 82: 1-16.
- Yoda K, Kira T, Ogawa H, Hozumi K. 1963. Self-thinning in overcrowded pure stands under cultivated and natural conditions. J Biol Osaka City Univ 14: 107-129.
- McCarter JB, Long JN. 1986. A lodgepole pine density management diagram. Western J Appl For 1: 6-11.
- Bhat KM, Ma HO. 2004. Teak is one of the pre-eminent timbers of the tropics, but growers and processors need to work together if that status is to be maintained. ITTO Trop For Update 14: 3-5.
- Clutter JL, Fortson JC, Pienaar LV, Brister HG, Bailey RL. 1983. Timber management : a quantitative approach. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
- Dean JT, Baldwin VC. 1996. Crown management and stand density. In: Growing Trees in a Greener World: industrial forestry in the 21st century. Proceedings of the 35th LSU Forestry symposium (Carter MC, ed). Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, Baton Rouge (LA), pp 148-159.
- Dean TJ, Baldwin VC. 1993. Using a densitymanagement diagram to develop thinning schedules for loblolly pine plantations. New Orleans (LA): USDA Forest Service. Southern Forest Experimental Station (Research Paper no. SO 275).
- Drew TJ, Flewelling JW. 1979. Stand density management: an alternative approach and its application to Douglas-fir plantations. For Sci 25: 518-532.
- Goulding CJ. 1972. Simulation techniques for a stochastic model of the growth of douglas-fir. Ph. D. thesis. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
- Gove JH. 2004. Structural stocking guides: a new look at an old friend. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 34: 1044-1056. https://doi.org/10.1139/x03-272
- Pandey D. 1998. Forest plantation areas, 1995. Report of the FAO project GCP/INT/628/UK. Rome: FAO.
- Newton PF. 2003. Yield prediction errors of a stand density management program for black spruce and consequences for model improvement. Canadian J For Res 33: 490-499. https://doi.org/10.1139/x02-207
- Newton PF, Lei Y, Zhang SY. 2005. Stand-level diameter distribution yield model for black spruce plantations. For Ecol Mgmt 209: 181-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.01.020
- Newton PF, Weetman GF. Stand density management diagram for managed black spruce stands. For Chron 70: 65-74.
- Reineke LH. 1933. Perfecting a stand-density index for evenaged forests. J Agric Res 46: 627-638.
- SAS Institute. 2004. SAS/ETS 9.1 user's guide. Version 9. SAS Institute Inc, Cary (NC).
- Smith FW, Long JN. 1987. Elk hiding and thermal cover guidelines in the context of lodgepole pine stand density. Western J Appl For 2: 6-10.
- Tewari VP, Alvarez-Gonzalez JG, von Gadow K. 2014. Dynamic base-age invariant site index models for Tectona grandis in peninsular India. Southern For 76: 21-27.
- Tewari VP, Mariswamy KM, Arunkumar AN. 2013a. Total and merchantable volume equations for Tectona grandis Linn. F. plantations in Karnataka, India. J Sustain For 32: 213-229. https://doi.org/10.1080/10549811.2013.762187
- Valbuena P, del Peso C, Bravo F. 2008. Stand Density Management Diagrams for two Mediterranean pine species in Eastern Spain. Invest Agr: Sis Recur For 17: 97-104. https://doi.org/10.5424/srf/2008172-01026
- von Gadow K, Bredenkamp BV. 1992. Forest management. Academica, Pretoria, pp 152.
- von Gadow K, Hui GY. 1999. Modelling forest development. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 213.
- Wilson FG. 1946. Numerical expression of stocking in terms of height. J For 44: 758-761.
- Newton PF. 1997. Stand density management diagrams: Review of their development and utility in stand-level management planning. For Ecol Mgmt 98: 251-265. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(97)00086-8
- Density management diagram for teak plantations in Tabasco, Mexico vol.10, pp.6, 2017, https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor2247-010