Seasonal Dynamics of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) in Forest Trees of Chittagong University Campus in Bangladesh



Nandi, Rajasree;Mridha, M.A.U.;Bhuiyan, Md. Kalimuddin

  • 투고 : 2013.07.25
  • 심사 : 2014.05.11
  • 발행 : 2014.08.31


Status of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) colonization in seven tree species (Albizia saman, Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth., Albizia lebbeck, Chickrassia tabularis A. Juss., Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnn., Gmelina arborea (Roxb) DC, Swietenia macrophylla King.) collected from the hilly areas of Chittagong University (CU) was investigated. Roots and rhizosphere soil samples were collected in different seasons (pre-monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon). Percentage of AM colonization in root and number of spores/100 gm dry soil were assessed. The result of the investigation reveals that the intensity and percentage of AM colonization varied in different forest tree species in different seasons. In this study, maximum AM colonization and spore population were found in pre-monsoon and minimum were in monsoon season. The intensity of colonization was maximum in C. tabularis (74.43%) in pre-monsoon, A. lebbeck (69.45%) in monsoon and S. macrophylla (67.8%) in post monsoon seasons and minimum in A. auriculiformis (53.75%) during pre-monsoon, A. saman (24.4%) in monsoon and A. saman (19.36%) in post monsoon. The number of spores found per 100 g dry soil ranged between 164-376 during pre-monsoon, 27-310 during monsoon and 194-299 in post monsoon season. Out of six recognized genera of AM fungi, Glomus, Sclerocystis, Entrophospora, Scutellospora, Acaulospora and other unidentified spores were observed.


Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi;colonization;rhizosphere;spore population;tree species


  1. Saravanakumar A, Rajkumar M, Serebiah JS, Thivakaran GA. 2008. Seasonal variations in physico-chemical characteristics of water, sediment and soil texture in arid zone mangroves of Kachchh-Gujarat. J Environ Biol 29: 725-732.
  2. Phillips JM, Hayman DS. 1970. Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Trans Br Mycol Soc 55: 158-161.
  3. Rahman MS, Mridha MAU, Islam SMN, Hoque SMS, Dhar PP, Shah SK. 2003. Status of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in certain tropical forest tree legume seedlings. The Indian For 129: 371-376.
  4. Saif SR. 1977. The influence of stage of host development on vesicular- arbuscular mycorrhizae and endogonaceous spore population in field-grown vegetable crops I. summer-grown crops. New Phytologist 79: 341-348.
  5. Schenck NC, Perez Y. 1990. Manual for the identification of VA mycorrhizal fungi. Synergistic Publications, USA, pp 286.
  6. Singh R, Adholeya A, Mukerji KG. 2000. Mycorrhizal in control of soil borne pathogens. In: Mycorrhizal biology (Mukerji KG, Chamola BP, eds). Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp 173-196.
  7. Talukdar NC, Germida JJ. 1993. Occurrence and isolation of vesicular- arbuscular mycorrhizae in cropped field soils of Saskatchewan, Canada. Can J Microbiol 39: 567-575.
  8. Tisdall JM, Oades M. 1982. Organic matter and water-stable aggregates in soils. J Soil Sci 33: 141-163.
  9. Van der Heijden MGA, Klironomos JN, Ursic M, Moutoglis P, Strietwolf- Engel R, Boller T, Wiemken A, Sanders IR. 1998. Mycorrhizal fungal diversity determines the plant diversity, ecosystem variability and productivity. Nature 396: 69-72.
  10. Mehrotra VS. 1998. Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations of plants colonizing coal mine spoil in India. J Agri Sci 130: 125-133.
  11. Klironomos JN, McCune J, Hart M, Neville J. 2000. The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae on the relationship between plant diversity and productivity. Ecol Lett 3: 137-141.
  12. Kumar D, Gaikwad SH, Singh SP. 1995. Influence of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on mycorrhizal associations in wheat. In: Proceeding: Mycorrhizae: Biofertilizer For The Future. Third National Conference on Mycorrhiza Adholeya. A. Singh S. New Delhi, India.
  13. Marschner H, Dell B. 1994. Nutrient uptake in mycorrhizal symbiosis. Plant and Soil 159: 89-102.
  14. Miller RM, Jastrow JD. 1990. Hierarchy of root and mycorrhizal fungal interactions with soil aggregation. Soil Biol Biochem 22: 579-584.
  15. Mohan V, Singh YP. 1996. Studies on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal VAM associations in Prosopis spp. in arid zone of Rajasthan. Ann For 4: 55-64
  16. Mohan V, Verma N, Singh YP. 1995. Distribution of VAM fungi in nurseries and plantations of neem (Azadirachta indica) in arid zone of Rajasthan. Indian Forester 121: 1069-1076.
  17. Mohandas S. 1987. Field response of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill 'Pusa Ruby') to inoculation with a VA mycorrhizal fungusGlomus fasiculatum and withAzotobacter vinelandii. Plant and Soil 98: 295-297.
  18. Morton JB, Benny GL. 1990. Revised classification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Zygomycetes): a new order, Glomales, two new suborders, Glomineae and Gigasporineae, and two new families, Acaulosporaceae and Gigasporaceae, with an emendation of Glomaceae. Mycotaxon 37: 471-491.
  19. O'Connor PJ, Smith SE. Smith FA. 2002. Arbuscular mycorrhizas influence plant diversity and community structure in a semiarid herbland. New Phytol 154: 209-218.
  20. Gerdemann JN. 1975. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae. In: The development and function of roots (Torry JG, Clarkson DT, eds). Academic Press, London and New York, pp 491-575.
  21. Dhillion SS, Anderson RC. 1993. Seasonal dynamics of dominant species of arbuscular mycorrhizae in burned and unburned sand prairies. Canadian Journal of Botany 71: 1625-1630.
  22. Ferdousee N, Misbahuzzaman K, Rafiqul Hoque ATM. 2012. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization in Five Tropical Forest Tree Legumes of Chittagong University Campus in Bangladesh. Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences 8: 353-361.
  23. Gemma JN, Koske RE, Carreiro M. 1989. Seasonal dynamics of selected species of V-A mycorrhizal fungi in a sand dune. Mycological Research 92: 317-321.
  24. Gerdemann JW, Nicolson TH. 1963. Spores of mycorrhizal Endogone species extracted from soil by wet sieving and decanting. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 46: 235-244.
  25. Gerdemann JW, Trappe JM. 1974. The Endogonaceae in the Pacific Northwest, No.5. The New York Botanical Garden, New York, pp 76.
  26. Hayman DS. 1974. Plant growth responses to vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza. VI. Effect of light and temperature. New Phytol 73: 71-78.
  27. Hetrick BAD. 1988. Ecology of VA-mycorrhizal fungi. In: VA mycorrhiza (Powel CL, Bagyaraj DJ, eds). CRC Press Inc, Boca Raton, Florida, pp 35-55.
  28. Jalali BL, Jalali I. 1991. Mycorrhizae in plant disease control. In: Handbook of applied mycology Vol. 1 Soil and plants (Aurora DK, Rai B, Mukerji KG, Knudsen GR, eds). Maxcel Dekker Inc., New York, pp 131-154.
  29. Janos DP. 1987. VA mycorrhiza in humid tropical ecosystems. In: Ecophysiology of VA-mycorrhizal plants (Safir GR, ed). CRC Press, Boca, Raton.
  30. Kiers ET, Lovelock CE, Krueger EL, Herre EA. 2000. Differential effects of tropical arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inocula on root colonization and tree seedling growth: implications for tropical forest diversity. Ecology 84: 2292-2301.
  31. Blaszkowski J. 1989. The occurrence of the Endogonaceae in Poland. Agril Ecosy Envirn 29: 45-50.
  32. Bethlenfalvay GJ, Thomas RS, Dekessian S, Brown MS, Ames RN. 1988. Mycorrhizae in stressed environments: Effects on plant growth, endophyte development, soil stability and soil water. In: Arid lands : today and tomorrow (Whitehead EE, ed). Westview Press, Boulder, pp 1015-1029.
  33. Bever JD. 2002. Negative feedback within a mutualism: host-specific growth of mycorrhizal fungi reduces plant benefit. Proc R. Proc R Soc London. Biol Sci 269: 2595-2601.
  34. Bever JD, Schultz PA, Pringle A, Morton JB. 2001. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal, Fungi: more diverse than, meets the eye, and the ecological tale of why. BioScience 51: 923-931.[0923:AMFMDT]2.0.CO;2
  35. Brown ME, Carr GR. 1984. Interaction between Azotobacter chroococcum and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza and their effects on plant growth. J Appl Bacteriol 56: 429-437.
  36. Burrows RL, Pfleger FL. 2002a. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi respond to increasing plant diversity. Can J Bot 80: 120-130.
  37. Burrows RL, Pfleger FL. 2002b. Host responses to AMF from plots differing in plant diversity. Plant Soil 240: 169-179.
  38. Castelli JP, Casper BB. 2003. Intraspecific AM fungal variation contributes to plant-fungal feedback in a serpentine grassland. Ecology 84: 323-336.[0323:IAFVCT]2.0.CO;2
  39. D'Souza J, Rodrigues BF. 2012. Seasonal Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Mangroves of Goa, India, Intl J Biodi 2013: Article ID 196527, 7 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/ 196527.
  40. Dhar PP, Mridha MAU. 2003. Status of biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in different tree species growing in Betagi community forests. The Chittagong Univ J Sci 27: 13-19.
  41. Amin UM, Xu HL. 2001. Nature Farming with Vesicular- Arbuscular Mycorrhizae in Bangladesh. Journal of Crop Production 3: 303-312.
  42. Anon. 1979. Detailed soil survey of Chittagong University Campus, Chittagong. Department of soil survey, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. pp 207.
  43. Anon. 1989. Forest Management Plan. Management Plan for Chittagong University Campus for the period 1989-1990 to 1999-2000, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  44. Auge RM, Schekel KA, Wample RL. 1987a. Leaf water and carbohydrate status of VA mycorrhizal rose exposed to draught stress. Plant Soil 99: 291-302.
  45. Auge RM, Schekel KA, Wample RL. 1987b. Rose leaf elasticity changes in response to mycorrhizal colonization and drought acclimation. Physiologia Plantarum 70: 175-182.
  46. Bala K, Raoa AV, Tarafdar JC. 1989. Occurrence of VAM associations in different plant species of the Indian desert. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 3: 391-396.
  47. Barea JM. 1991. Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae as modifiers of soil fertility. In: Advances in soil sciences (Stewart BA, ed). Springer-veriag, New York, pp 1-40.
  48. Bentivenga SP, Hetrick BAD. 1992. Seasonal and temperature effects on mycorrhizal activity and dependence of cool- and warm-season tallgrass prairie grasses. Canadian Journal of Botany 70: 1596-1602.