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CTX Prophages in Vibrio cholerae O1 Strains

  • Kim, Eun Jin (Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Hanyang University) ;
  • Lee, Dokyung (Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Hanyang University) ;
  • Moon, Se Hoon (Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Hanyang University) ;
  • Lee, Chan Hee (Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Hanyang University) ;
  • Kim, Dong Wook (Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Hanyang University)
  • Received : 2014.03.31
  • Accepted : 2014.04.10
  • Published : 2014.06.28

Abstract

The classical biotype strains of the Vibrio cholerae O1 serogroup harbor the biotype-specific cholera-toxin encoding phage (CTX) $CTX^{cla}$, and the El Tor biotype strains contain CTX-1. Although the classical biotype strains have become extinct, a remnant of classical CTX phage is transferred to the El Tor biotype strains. The prototype El Tor strains, which produce the biotype-specific cholera toxin, are now being replaced by atypical El Tor variant strains producing classical biotype cholera toxin. The genome sequences of the CTX phages in atypical El Tor strains indicate that the CTX phages in atypical El Tor strains are a mosaic of $CTX^{cla}$ and CTX-1. Before the emergence of atypical El Tor stains in the early 1990s, unusual pre-seventh pandemic strains were isolated in the US Gulf Coast between 1973 and 1986. These strains have characteristics of atypical El Tor strains since they are El Tor biotype strains containing $CTX^{cla}$, yet the genome sequence of this CTX phage indicates that it is different from $CTX^{cla}$ and is therefore classified separately as $CTX^{US\;Gulf}$.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Hanyang University

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