Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Sikhe prepared using Hot Water Extracts of Roasted Coffee Ground Residue

커피박 열수추출물로 제조한 식혜의 품질 특성 및 항산화 활성

  • Received : 2014.04.17
  • Accepted : 2014.05.15
  • Published : 2014.08.31


This study was performed to evaluate the quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of sikhe prepared using various concentrations of hot water extracts roasted coffee ground residue (CR-sikhe; 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0%). The pH increased with increasing CR concentration. The reducing sugar content after 5 h saccharification was the highest when 0.8% CR extract was used. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased in a concentration-dependent manner reaching maximum levels when 1.0% CR-extract was used. The antioxidant activities of CR-extracts were higher than that of the control and increased dose-dependently. The CR-0.6 showed the best taste (4.28), color (4.56), flavor (4.08), and overall acceptability (4.28). After 10 day of storage at $4^{\circ}C$, the total cell count in CR-sikhe was approximately 1-2 log cycle, which was less than that in the control.


coffee residue;sikhe;quality characteristics;antioxidant activity


  1. Almeida AAP, Farah A, Silva DAM, Nunan EA, Gloria MBA. Antibacterial activity of coffee extracts and selected coffee chemical compound against Enterobacteria. J. Agr. Food Chem. 54: 8738-8743 (2006)
  2. Anese M, Nicoli MC. Antioxidant properties of ready-to-drink coffee brews. J. Agr. Food Chem. 51: 942-946 (2003)
  3. Rufian-Henares JA, Morales FJ. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of coffee melanoidins. J. Agr. Food Chem. 55: 1480-1485 (2007)
  4. Daglia M, Racchi M, Papetti A, Lanni C, Govoni S, Gazzani G. In vitro and ex vivo antihydroxyl radical activity of green and roasted coffee. J. Agr. Food Chem. 52: 1700-1704 (2004)
  5. Castillo MDD, Ames JM, Gordon MH. Effect of roasting on the antioxidant activity of coffee brews. J. Agr. Food Chem. 50: 3698-3703 (2002)
  6. Rhi JW and Shin HS. Physicochemical properties of antioxidant fractions extracted from freeze-dried coffee by various solvents. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 28: 109-116(1996)
  7. Moreira DP, Monteiro MC, Ribeiro-Alves M, Donangelo CM, Trugo LC. Contribution of chlorogenic acids to the iron-reducing activity of coffee beverages. J. Agr. Food Chem. 53: 1399-1402 (2005)
  8. Delgado-Andrade C, Rufian-Henares JA, Morales FJ. Assessing the antioxidant activity of melanoidins from coffee brews by different antioxidant methods. J. Agr. Food Chem. 53: 7832-7836 (2005)
  9. Borrelli RC, Visconti A, Mennella C, Anese M, Fogliano V. Chemical characterization and antioxidant properties of coffee melanoidins. J. Agr. Food Chem. 5: 6527- 6533 (2002)
  10. Esquivel, P. and V. M. Jimenez. Functional properties of coffee and coffee by-products. Food Res. Int. 46: 488-495 (2012)
  11. Silva MA, Nebra SA, Machado Silva JM, Sanchez CG. The use of biomass residues in the brazilian soluble coffee industry. Biomass Bioenerg. 14: 457-467 (1998)
  12. Lee CH, Kim SY. Literature review on the Korean traditional non-alcoholic beverages. I. Types and processing methods. Korean J. Food Culture 6: 43-54 (1991)
  13. Yen WJ, Wang BS, Chang LW, Duh PD. Antioxidant properties of roasted coffee residues. J. Agr. Food Chem. 53: 2658-2663(2005)
  14. Song EJ, Kim JY, Lee SY, Kim KBWR, Kim SJ, Yoon SY, Lee SJ, Lee CJ, Ahn DH. Effect of Roasted ground coffee residue extract on shelf-life and quality of salted mackerel. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 38: 780-786 (2009)
  15. Yoo KM, Song MR, Jung JE. Preparation and sensory characteristics of chocolate with added coffee waste. Korean J. Food Nutr. 24: 111-116 (2011)
  16. Park SI. Application of green tea powder for sikhe preparation. Korean J. Food Nutr. 19: 227-233 (2006)
  17. Kim HH, Park GS, Jeon JR. Quality characteristics and storage properties of sikhe prepared with extracts from Hovenia dulcis THUNB. Korean J. Food Cook. Sci. 23: 848-857 (2007)
  18. Hur SS. Change in the composition of ginseng sikhye during the saccharification process. Korean J. Food Preserv. 14: 650-654 (2007)
  19. Min SH. Quality characteristics of sikhe prepared with Astragalus membranaceus water extracts. J. East Asian Soc. Dietary Life 19: 216-223 (2009)
  20. Cho KM, Joo OS. Manufacture of sikhe (a traditional Korean baverage) using corn silk extracts. Korean J. Food Preserv. 17: 644-651 (2010)
  21. Lee JH. Quality of sikhe incorporated with hot water extract of omija(Schisandra chinensis baillon) fruit. Food Eng. Prog. 15: 80-84 (2011)
  22. An YH, Lee IS, Kim HS. Quality characteristics of sikhye with varied levels of sweet pumpkin during storage. Korean J. Food Cook. Sci. 27: 803-814 (2011)
  23. Lee WJ, Kim SS. Preparation of sikhe with brown rice. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 30: 146-150 (1998)
  24. Kim JS. Quality characteristics of sikhae with mulberry fruit. Korean J. Culinary Res. 18: 206-215 (2012)
  25. Hwang SH, Chung CH. Production of sikhae fermented beverage using a dextran producin isolate from kimchi and takju yeast. J. East Asian Soc. Dietary Life. 21: 82-87 (2011)
  26. Lee MW, Lee YH. Quality characteristics of sikhye prepared with puffed rice powder during saccharification. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 44: 553-558 (2012)
  27. Kim MR, Seo JH, Heo OS, Oh SH, Lee KS. Physicochemical and sensory qualities of commercial sikhes. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 31: 728-732 (2002)
  28. The Korea Society of Food Science and Nutrition. Handbook of Experiments in Food Science and Nutrition. Hyoil Publishing Co., Seoul, Korea. pp. 151-152 (2000)
  29. Singleton VL, Joseph A, Rossi J. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolibdic-phosphotungsitc acid reagents. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 16: 144-158 (1965)
  30. Saleh ES, Hameed A. Total phenolic contents and free radical scavenging activity of certain Egyptian Ficus species leaf samples. Food Chem. 114: 1271-1277 (2008)
  31. Blois MS. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 181: 1199-1200 (1958)
  32. Kato H, Lee IE, Chuyen NV, Kim SB, Hayase F. Inhibition of nitrosamine formation by non-dialyzable melanoidins. Agr. Biol. Chem. Tokyo. 51: 1333-1338 (1987)
  33. Yen GC, Duh PD, Tsai HL. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of ascorbic acid and gallic acid. Food Chem. 79: 307-313 (2002)
  34. Jeong SI, Yu HH. Quality characteristics of sikhe prepared with the roots powder of doraji (Platycodon grandiflorum A. DE. Candolle). J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 42: 759-765 (2013)
  35. Kim JY. Food materialization of spent coffee ground extracts and variation of coffee antioxidant ability according to extraction process. MS thesis, Pukyong National University. Daegu, Korea (2008)
  36. Choi YH, Kim SE, Huh J, Han YH, Lee MJ. Antibacteria and antioxidative activity of roasted coffee and red ginseng mixture extracts. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 41: 320-326 (2012)
  37. Ibrahim SA, Salameh MM, Phetsomphou S, Yang H, Seo CW. Application of caffeine, 1,3,7-trimethylxantine to control Escherichia coli O157:H7. Food Chem. 99: 654-650 (2006)
  38. Baranowski JD, Nagel CW. Inhibition of Pseudomonas fluorescens by hydroxycinnamic acids and their alkyl esters. J. Food Sci. 47: 1587-1589 (1982)
  39. Herald PJ, Davidson PM. Antibacterial activity of selected hydroxycinnamic acids. J. Food Sci. 48: 1378-1379 (1983)
  40. Garrote G, Cruz JM, Moure A, Dominguez H, Parajo JC. Antioxidant activity of byproducts from the hydrolytic processing of selected lignocellulosic materials. Trends Food Sci. Tech. 15: 191-200 (2004)

Cited by

  1. Quality Characteristics of Sikhye made with Berries vol.25, pp.6, 2015,
  2. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidative Activity of Muffins Added with Coffee Ground Residue Water Extract and Powder vol.45, pp.1, 2016,
  3. Quality Characteristics of Sikhye added with Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Fruit Concentrate vol.26, pp.1, 2016,
  4. Overview for Coffee Grounds Recycling Technology and Future Concerns vol.35, pp.7, 2018,


Supported by : 대구가톨릭대학