Comparison of the Effects of Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors on TNF-α Release from Activated Microglia and TNF-α Converting Enzyme Activity

  • Lee, Eun-Jung (Department of Molecular Medicine, Tissue Injury Defense Research Center, Ewha Womans University Medical School) ;
  • Moon, Pyong-Gon (Department of Molecular Medicine, Kyongbuk National University) ;
  • Baek, Moon-Chang (Department of Molecular Medicine, Kyongbuk National University) ;
  • Kim, Hee-Sun (Department of Molecular Medicine, Tissue Injury Defense Research Center, Ewha Womans University Medical School)
  • Received : 2014.09.03
  • Accepted : 2014.09.19
  • Published : 2014.09.30


Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that regulate cell-matrix composition and are also involved in processing various bioactive molecules such as cell-surface receptors, chemokines, and cytokines. Our group recently reported that MMP-3, -8, and -9 are upregulated during microglial activation and play a role as proinflammatory mediators (Lee et al., 2010, 2014). In particular, we demonstrated that MMP-8 has tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-${\alpha}$)-converting enzyme (TACE) activity by cleaving the prodomain of TNF-${\alpha}$ and that inhibition of MMP-8 inhibits TACE activity. The present study was undertaken to compare the effect of MMP-8 inhibitor (M8I) with those of inhibitors of other MMPs, such as MMP-3 (NNGH) or MMP-9 (M9I), in their regulation of TNF-${\alpha}$ activity. We found that the MMP inhibitors suppressed TNF-${\alpha}$ secretion from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells in an order of efficacy: M8I>NNGH>M9I. In addition, MMP inhibitors suppressed the activity of recombinant TACE protein in the same efficacy order as that of TNF-${\alpha}$ inhibition (M8I>NNGH>M9I), proving a direct correlation between TACE activity and TNF-${\alpha}$ secretion. A subsequent pro-TNF-${\alpha}$ cleavage assay revealed that both MMP-3 and MMP-9 cleave a prodomain of TNF-${\alpha}$, suggesting that MMP-3 and MMP-9 also have TACE activity. However, the number and position of cleavage sites varied between MMP-3, -8, and -9. Collectively, the concurrent inhibition of MMP and TACE by NNGH, M8I, or M9I may contribute to their strong anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects.


Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)


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