Influence of Water Temperature, Background Color, and Light Intensity in Feeding, Growth and Blind-Side Hypermelanosis of Starry Flounder, Platichthys stellatus

강도다리, Platichthys stellatus의 먹이섭식, 성장 및 무안측 체색발현에 있어 수온, 수조색상 및 조도의 영향

  • Kang, Duk-Young (West Sea Fisheries Research Institute, National Fisheries Research Development Institute) ;
  • Kim, Won-Jin (Department Marine Bio-Materials & Aquaculture, Pukyoung National University) ;
  • Kim, Hyo-Chan (West Sea Fisheries Research Institute, National Fisheries Research Development Institute) ;
  • Chang, Young Jin (Department Marine Bio-Materials & Aquaculture, Pukyoung National University)
  • 강덕영 (국립수산과학원 서해수산연구소) ;
  • 김원진 (부경대학교 해양바이오신소재학과) ;
  • 김효찬 (국립수산과학원 서해수산연구소) ;
  • 장영진 (부경대학교 해양바이오신소재학과)
  • Received : 2014.06.06
  • Accepted : 2014.09.11
  • Published : 2014.09.30


To find the influence of water temperature, tank color and illumination in feeding, growth and blind-side hypermelanosis of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, in the present study, we performed a series of temperature, background color and illumination intensity test for 180 days (From June to December). The test was done in duplicate at 100 fish/tank (430% of initial covering area [PCA]) with the selected ordinary juvenile flounder (TL $17.3{\pm}0.5cm$, BW $82.5{\pm}0.2g$). The rearing was performed in darkgreen FRP aquarium tanks ($H100cm{\times}L100cm{\times}W100cm$; bottom area $1m^2$) lighten with average 1,000 lux and 230 lux, and in white FRP aquarium tank ($H100cm{\times}L100cm{\times}W100cm$; bottom area $1m^2$) lighten with average 230 lux of light intensity. We investigated correlation of daily food intake (DFI) with water temperature and salinity, and compared the influences of background colors and light intensity in DFI, food efficiency (FE), growth, survival rate, and ratio of malpigmented blind-side area and ambicolored fish ratio. In DFI, although it was not related with salinity, the amount was significantly decreased under 0.5 g/fish/day in summer and winter season, but was significantly increased over 1.5 g/fish/day in autumn season showing from $10^{\circ}C$ to $20^{\circ}C$ in water temperature. In background and illumination test, DFI, FE and survival rate showed no difference among three groups. The ratios of malpigmented blind-side area and ambicolored fish were also not significantly different among three groups, indicating that the blind-side hypermelanosis of starry may be governed not by background color (or light intensity) but by a genetics external trait inherited from parents.


Grant : 강도다리 체색형질 개선연구

Supported by : 국립수산과학원


  1. Amiya, N., M. Amano, T. Yamanome, K. Yamamori and A. Takahashi. 2008. Effects of background color on GnRH and MCH levels in the barfin flounder brain. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 155: 88-93.
  2. Amiya, N., M. Amano, A. Takahashi, T. Yamanome, H. Kawauchi and K. Yamamori. 2005. Effects of tank color on melaninconcentrating hormone levels in the brain, pituitary gland, and plasma of the barfin flounder as revealed by a newly developed time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 143: 251-256.
  3. Bapary, M.A.J., M.N. Amin, Y. Takeuchi and A. Takemura. 2011. The stimulatory effects of long wavelengths of light on the ovarian development in the tropical damselfish, Chrysiptera cyanea. Aquaculture, 314: 188-192.
  4. Bergstrom, C.A. 2007. Morphological evidence of correlational selection and ecological segregation between dextral and sinistral forms in a polymorphic flatfish, Platichthys stellatus. J. Evol. Biol., 20: 1104-1114.
  5. Bevelhimer, M. and W. Bennett. 2000. Assessing cumulative thermal stress in fish during chronic intermittent exposure to high temperatures. Environ. Sci. Policy., 3: S211-S216.
  6. Brown, J.A.G., A. Jones and A.J. Matty. 1984. Oxygen metabolism of farmed turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). I. The influence of fish size and water temperature on metabolic rate. Aquaculture, 36: 273-281.
  7. Byun, S.-G., B.-I. Lee, J.-H. Lee, H.-D. Ku, S.-U. Park, S.-M. Yun, S.-Y. Hwang, Y.-C. Kim and H.-G. Han. 2007. Egg development and morphological change of larvae and juveniles of the starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus. Korean J. Ichthyol., 19: 350-359.
  8. Deane, E.E. and N.Y.S. Woo. 2009. Modulation of fish growth hormone levels by salinity, temperature, pollutants and aquaculture related stress: A review. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 19: 97-120.
  9. Denson, M.R. and T.I.J. Smith. 1997. Diet and light intensity effects on survival, growth and pigmentation of southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma. J. World Aquacult. Soc., 28: 366-373.
  10. Didrikas, T. and S. Hansson. 2009. Effects of light intensity on activity and pelagic dispersion of fish: Studies with a seabedmounted echosounder. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 66: 388-395.
  11. Doolan, B.J., G.L. Allan, M.A. Booth and P.L. Jones. 2008. Effects of cage netting colour and density on the skin pigmentation and stress response of Australian snapper Pagrus auratus (Bloch&Schneider, 1801). Aquacult. Res., 39: 1360-1368.
  12. Doolan, B.J., M.A. Booth, P.L. Jones and G.L. Allan. 2007. Effect of cage colour and light environment on the skin colour of Australian snapper Pagrus auratus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801). Aquacult. Res., 38: 1395-1403.
  13. Doolan, B.J., M.A. Booth, G.L. Allan and P.L. Jones. 2009. Changes in skin colour and cortisol response of Australian snapper Pagrus auratus (bloch & schneider, 1801) to different background colours. Aquacult. Res., 40: 542-550.
  14. Han, D., S. Xie, W. Lei, X. Zhu and Y. Yang. 2005. Effect of light intensity on growth, survival and skin color of juvenile Chinese longsnout catfish (Leiocassis longirostris Günther). Aquaculture, 248: 299-306.
  15. Hazel, J.R. 1984. Effects of temperature on the structure and metabolism of cell membranes in fish. The American Journal of Physiology, 246: R460-470.
  16. Henning, F., J.C. Jones, P. Franchini and A. Meyer. 2013. Transcriptomics of morphological color change in polychromatic Midas cichlids. BMC Genomics, 14.
  17. Hoang, T., S.Y. Lee, C.P. Keenan and G.E. Marsden. 2002. Effects of age, size, and light intensity on spawning performance of pond-reared Penaeus merguiensis. Aquaculture, 212: 373-382.
  18. Iwata, N. and K. Kikuchi. 1998. Effects of sandy substrate and light on hypermelanosis of the blind side in cultured Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Environ. Biol. Fishes, 52: 291-297.
  19. Kalinowski, C.T., L.E. Robaina, H. Fernandez-Palacios, D. Schuchardt and M.S. Izquierdo. 2005. Effect of different carotenoid sources and their dietary levels on red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) growth and skin colour. Aquaculture, 244: 223-231.
  20. Kang, D.Y., H.C. Kim and Y.J. Chang. 2011. Effects of stocking density on the blind-side hypermelanosis of cultured olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 14: 123-129.
  21. Kang, D.Y., J.H. Lee, W.J. Kim and H.C. Kim. 2012. Morphological specificity in cultured starry flounder Platichthys stellatus reared in artificial facility. Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 15: 117-123.
  22. Koeypudsa, W. and M. Jongjareanjai. 2010. Effect of water temperature on hematology and virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila in hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell x C. macrocephalus Gunther). Thai J. Vet. Med., 40: 179-186.
  23. Li, W., T. Zhang, C. Zhang, Z. Li, J. Liu and B.J. Hicks. 2013. Effects of turbidity and light intensity on foraging success of juvenile mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky). Environ. Biol. Fishes, 1-8.
  24. Lim, H.K., H.S. Han and Y.J. Chang. 2002. Effects of gonadotropinreleasing hormone analog on milt production enhancement in starry flounder Platichthys stellatus. Fish. Sci., 68: 1197-1204.
  25. Monk, J., V. Puvanendran and J.A. Brown. 2008. Does different tank bottom colour affect the growth, survival and foraging behaviour of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae? Aquaculture, 277: 197-202.
  26. Ottesen, O.H. and H.K. Strand. 1996. Growth, development, and skin abnormalities of halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) juveniles kept on different bottom substrates. Aquaculture, 146: 17-25.
  27. Pavlidis, M., M. Karkana, E. Fanouraki and N. Papandroulakis. 2008. Environmental control of skin colour in the red porgy, Pagrus pagrus. Aquacult. Res., 39: 837-849.
  28. Reichard, M., P. Jurajda and M. Ondrackova. 2002. The effect of light intensity on the drift of young-of-the-year cyprinid fishes. J. Fish Biol., 61: 1063-1066.
  29. Seikai, T. 1991. Influences of fluorescent light irradiation, ocular side pigmentation, and source of fishes on the blind side pigmentation in the young Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Suisan Zoshoku, 39: 173-180.
  30. Shikano, T. 2005. Marker-based estimation of heritability for body color variation in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquaculture, 249: 95-105.
  31. Smith, S., L. Bernatchez and L.B. Beheregaray. 2013. RNA-seq analysis reveals extensive transcriptional plasticity to temperature stress in a freshwater fish species. BMC Genomics, 14.
  32. Strand, A., A. Alanärä, F. Staffan and C. Magnhagen. 2007. Effects of tank colour and light intensity on feed intake, growth rate and energy expenditure of juvenile Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis L. Aquaculture, 272: 312-318.
  33. Sugimoto, M. 2002. Morphological color changes in fish: Regulation of pigment cell density and morphology. Microsc. Res. Tech., 58: 496-503.
  34. Suja, B., H. Phillips, R. Lochmann and R. Chen. 2009. Effect of temperature on growth, feed utilization, and immune status of channel catfish in a recirculating system. N. Am. J. Aquac., 71: 64-72.
  35. Takahashi, A., K. Tsuchiya, T. Yamanome, M. Amano, A. Yasuda, K. Yamamori and H. Kawauchi. 2004. Possible involvement of melanin-concentrating hormone in food intake in a teleost fish, barfin flounder. Peptides, 25: 1613-1622.
  36. Takahashi, Y. 1994. Influence of stocking density and food at late phase of larval period on hypermelanosis on the blind body side in juvenile Japanese flounder. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 60: 593-598.
  37. Tokranov, A.M. and V.V. Maksimenkov. 1994. Feeding of the starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, in the Bol'haya River estuary (western Kamchatka). J. Ichthyol., 34: 76-83.
  38. Vdovin, A.N., D.V. Antonenko and T.G. Sokolovskaya. 1997. Distribution of the starry flounder Platichthys stellatus in Peter the Great Bay. Russ. J. Mar. Biol., 23: 201-206.
  39. Venizelos, A. and D.D. Benetti. 1999. Pigment abnormalities in flatfish. Aquaculture, 176: 181-188.
  40. Yamanome, T., M. Amano and A. Takahashi. 2005. White background reduces the occurrence of staining, activates melaninconcentrating hormone and promotes somatic growth in barfin flounder. Aquaculture, 244: 323-329.
  41. Yamanome, T., M. Amano, N. Amiya and A. Takahashi. 2007. Hypermelanosis on the blind side of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus is diminished by rearing in a white tank: Short paper. Fish. Sci., 73: 466-468.
  42. Yoseda, K., K. Yamamoto, K. Asami, M. Chimura, K. Hashimoto and S. Kosaka. 2008a. Influence of light intensity on feeding, growth, and early survival of leopard coral grouper (Plectropomus leopardus) larvae under mass-scale rearing conditions. Aquaculture, 279: 55-62.