Effect of Joule Heating and Hydrostatic Pressure on Reduction of Total Aerobes and Spores of Bacillus cereus in Sauces Prepared with Traditional Korean Fermented Foods

장류를 이용하여 제조한 소스류의 총균 및 Bacillus cereus 포자에 대한 줄가열 및 초고압 처리 효과

  • Received : 2014.06.26
  • Accepted : 2014.09.20
  • Published : 2014.10.31


This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Joule heating and hydrostatic pressure on reduction of total aerobes and spores of Bacillus cereus in four kinds of sauces prepared with traditional Korean fermented foods. Total aerobes and inoculated spores of B. cereus in sauces were assayed after treatment or during storage at $30^{\circ}C$ after 4 or 8 weeks. Joule heating ($85^{\circ}C$), hydrostatic pressure (550 Mpa, 5 min), and antimicrobial additive (3% ethanol) were separately applied or combined as a hurdle technique. A 1.0~2.0 log reduction in total aerobes of Doenjang and Gochujang sauce was observed upon Joule heating at 80, 85, and $95^{\circ}C$. Significant reductions (0.92~1.21 log/0.5~1.38 log and 1.26~1.7 log/0.47~3.45 log) of total aerobes/spores of B. cereus in Doenjang and Gochujang sauce, respectively, occurred upon JA (Joule+additive), JP (Joule+hydrostatic pressure) or JAP (Joule+additive+ hydrostatic pressure). Effects of each treatments were maintained or increased during storage for 8 weeks at $30^{\circ}C$, suggesting that total aerobes and spores of B. cereus in Doenjang and Gochujang sauce can be controlled through Joule heating or hydrostatic pressure treatment.


Grant : 장류를 이용한 소스류 산업화 기술 개발

Supported by : 농림수산식품기술기획평가원


  1. Kim MJ, Lee HS. 1990. Studies on the changes of taste compounds during soy paste fermentation. Korean J Soc Food Sci 6: 1-8.
  2. Kim MJ, Lee HS. 1993. Studies on the changes of taste compounds during soy paste fermentation (II). Korean J Soc Food Sci 9: 257-260.
  3. Shin ZI, Ahn CW, Nam HS. 1995. Fractionation of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from soybean paste. Korean J Food Sci Technol 27: 230-234.
  4. Choo JJ. 2000. Anti-obesity effects of Kochujang in rats fed on high-fat diet. Korean J Nutr 33: 783-793.
  5. Kwon SH, Lee KB, Im KS, Kim SO, Park KY. 2006. Weight reduction and lipid lowering effects of traditional soybean fermented products. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 35: 1194-1199.
  6. Datamonitor. 2012. Consumer and innovation trends in sauces, dressings and condiments. Available at (accessed Apr, 2014).
  7. Seo JS, Chang HG, Ji WD, Lee EJ, Choi MR, Kim HJ, Kim JK. 1996. Aroma components of traditional Korean soy sauce and soybean paste fermented with the same Meju. J Microbiol Biotechnol 6: 275-285.
  8. Moon GS, Choi HS. 1987. Antioxidative characteristics of soybean sauce in lipid oxidation process: Korean J Food Sci Technol 19: 537-542.
  9. Lee JS, Cheigh HS. 1997. Antioxidative characteristics of isolated phenolics from soybean fermented foods (Doenjang). J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 26: 376-382.
  10. Lim S, Kim BO, Kim SH, Mok C, Park YS. 2001. Quality changes during storage of Kochujang treated with heat and high hydrostatic pressure. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 30: 611-616.
  11. Hong SP, Shin DB, Cho GH. 2008. Development of new sauce products using traditional Gochujang. Food Sci Ind 41(3): 96-101.
  12. Lee NH, Jo EJ, Oh SW, Hong SP. 2012. Study on the hurdle technique for the reduction of Bacillus cereus spores in Doenjang and Gochujang. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 41: 1842-1846.
  13. Cho WI, Kim DU, Kim YS, Pyun YR. 1994. Ohmic heating characteristics of fermented soybean paste and Kochujang. Korean J Food Sci Technol 26: 791-798.
  14. Kang SG, Park NH, Ko DO, Li JL, Kim BS. 2011. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure and gamma irradiation on quality and microbiological changes of Kochujang-Gulbi. Korean J Food Preserv 18: 1-6.
  15. Leistener L. 1978. Hurdle effect and energy saving. In Food Quality and Nutrition. Downey WK, ed. Applied Science Publishers, London, UK. p 553-557.
  16. Leistener L. 2000. Minimally processed ready to eat and ambient stable meat products. In Shelf Life Evaluation of Foods. Man MD, Jones AA, eds. Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, MD, USA. p 242-263.
  17. Yang SK, Kim JJ, Kim SJ, Oh SW. 2011. Synergistic effect of grapefruit seed extract, EDTA and heat on inactivation of Bacillus cereus spore. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 40: 1469-1473.
  18. Schaeffer AB, Fulton MD. 1933. A simplified method of staining endospores. Science 77: 194-197.
  19. KFDA. 2009. Food Standards. Available at http://fse.foodnara. (accessed June, 2014).
  20. Lee NH, Kim YH. 2009. Study and industrialization on the Joule heating in Japan. Bull Food Technol 22: 808-815.
  21. Cheftel JC, Culioli J. 1997. Effects of high pressure on meat: a review. Meat Sci 46: 211-236.
  22. Kim JS, Choi SH, Lee SD, Lee GH, Oh MJ. 1999. Quality changes of sterilized soybean paste during its storage. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 28: 1069-1075.
  23. Farkas DF, Hoover DG. 2000. High pressure processing. J Food Sci 65: 47-64.
  24. Jung Y, Jung S, Lee HJ, Kang M, Lee SK, Kim YJ, Jo C. 2012. Effect of high pressure after the addition of vegetable oil on the safety and quality of beef loin. Korean J Food Sci Ani Resour 32: 68-76.
  25. Tanaka T, Hatanaka K. 1992. Application of hydrostatic pressure to yoghurt to prevent its after acidification. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi 39: 173-177.

Cited by

  1. Effect of Sterilization Conditions on Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Three Korean Fried Rice Sauces     vol.25, pp.5, 2015,
  2. Effect of High Pressure Processing on Freshness of Meat Products vol.33, pp.4, 2018,