DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Coconut Materials on In vitro Ruminal Methanogenesis and Fermentation Characteristics

  • Kim, E.T. (Dairy Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Park, C.G. (Resources Development Institute) ;
  • Lim, D.H. (Dairy Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Kwon, E.G. (Dairy Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Ki, K.S. (Dairy Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Kim, S.B. (Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Moon, Y.H. (Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology) ;
  • Shin, N.H. (Gyengsangnamdo Livestock Veterinary Research Institute) ;
  • Lee, S.S. (Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School of Gyeongsang National University (Institute of Agriculture and Life Science))
  • Received : 2014.03.26
  • Accepted : 2014.08.31
  • Published : 2014.12.01

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of coconut materials on ruminal methanogenesis and fermentation characteristics, in particular their effectiveness for mitigating ruminal methanogenesis. Fistulated Holstein cows were used as the donor of rumen fluid. Coconut materials were added to an in vitro fermentation incubated with rumen fluid-buffer mixture and timothy substrate for 24 h incubation. Total gas production, gas profiles, total volatile fatty acids (tVFAs) and the ruminal methanogens diversity were measured. Although gas profiles in added coconut oil and coconut powder were not significantly different, in vitro ruminal methane production was decreased with the level of reduction between 15% and 19% as compared to control, respectively. Coconut oil and coconut powder also inhibited gas production. The tVFAs concentration was increased by coconut materials, but was not affected significantly as compared to control. Acetate concentration was significantly lower (p<0.05), while propionate was significantly higher (p<0.05) by addition of the coconut materials than that of the control. The acetate:propionate ratio was significantly lowered with addition of coconut oil and coconut powder (p<0.05). The methanogens and ciliate-associated methanogens in all added coconut materials were shown to decrease as compared with control. This study showed that ciliate-associated methanogens diversity was reduced by more than 50% in both coconut oil and coconut powder treatments. In conclusion, these results indicate that coconut powder is a potential agent for decreasing in vitro ruminal methane production and as effective as coconut oil.

Keywords

Ruminal Methane Production;Relative Quantification;Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction;Coconut;Methanogens

References

  1. Denman, S. E., N. W. Tomkins, and C. S. McSweeney. 2007. Quantitation and diversity analysis of ruminal methanogenic populations in response to the antimethanogenic compound bromochloromethane. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 62:313-322. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2007.00394.x
  2. Beauchemin, K. A., S. M. McGinn, and H. V. Petit. 2007. Methane abatement strategies for cattle: lipid supplementation of diets. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 87:431-440. https://doi.org/10.4141/CJAS07011
  3. Calsamiglia, S., M. Busquet, P. W. Cardozo, L. Castillejos, and A. Ferret. 2007. Invited review: Essential oils as modifiers of rumen microbial fermentation. J. Dairy Sci. 90:2580-2595. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-644
  4. Denman, S. E. and C. S. McSweeney. 2006. Development of a real-time PCR assay for monitoring anaerobic fungal and cellulolytic bacterial populations within the rumen. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 58:572-582. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2006.00190.x
  5. Ding, X., R. Long, Q. Zhang, X. Huang, X. Guo, and J. Mi. 2012. Reducing methane emissions and the methanogen population in the rumen of Tibetan sheep by dietary supplementation with coconut oil. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 44:1541-1545. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-012-0103-7
  6. Dohme, F., A. Machmuller, A. Wasserfallen, and M. Kreuzer. 2000. Comparative efficiency of various fats rich in medium-chain fatty acids to suppress ruminal methanogenesis as measured with RUSITEC. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 80:473-484. https://doi.org/10.4141/A99-113
  7. Dohme, F., A. Machmuller, A. Wasserfallen, and M. Kreuzer. 2001. Ruminal methanogenesis as infuenced by individual fatty acids supplemented to complete ruminant diets. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 32:47-51. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1472-765x.2001.00863.x
  8. Jordan, E., D. K. Lovett, M. Hawkins, J. J. Callan, and F. P. O'Mara. 2006. The effect of varying levels of coconut oil on intake, digestibility and methane output from continental cross beef heifers. Anim. Sci. 82:859-865. https://doi.org/10.1017/ASC2006107
  9. Erwin, E. S., G. J. Marco, and E. M. Emery. 1961. Volatile fatty acid analysis of blood and rumen fluid by gas chromatography. J. Dairy Sci. 44:1768-1771. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(61)89956-6
  10. Hegarty, R. S. 1999. Reducing rumen methane emissions through elimination of rumen protozoa. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 50:1321-1328. https://doi.org/10.1071/AR99008
  11. Johnson, K. A. and D. E. Johnson. 1995. Methane emissions from cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2483-2492. https://doi.org/10.2527/1995.7382483x
  12. Luton, P. E., J. M. Wayne, R. J. Sharp, and P. W. Riley. 2002. The mcrA gene as an alternative to 16S rRNA in the phylogenetic analysis of methanogen populations in landfill. Microbiology 148:3521-3530. https://doi.org/10.1099/00221287-148-11-3521
  13. Machmuller, A. and M. Kreuzer. 1999. Methane suppression by coconut oil and associated effects on nutrient and energy balance in sheep. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 79:65-72. https://doi.org/10.4141/A98-079
  14. Machmuller, A., C. R. Soliva, and M. Kreuzer. 2003. Effect of coconut oil and defaunation treatment on methanogenesis in sheep. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 43:41-55. https://doi.org/10.1051/rnd:2003005
  15. McDougall, E. I. 1948. Studies on ruminant saliva. 1. The composition and output of sheep's saliva. Biochem. J. 43:99-109. https://doi.org/10.1042/bj0430099
  16. Medlin, L., H. J. Elwood, S. Stickel, and H. L. Sogin. 1988. The characterization of enzymatically amplified eukaryotic 16S-like rRNA-coding regions. Gene 71:491-499. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1119(88)90066-2
  17. Mitsumori, M. and W. Sun. 2008. Control of rumen microbial fermentation for mitigating methane emissions from the rumen. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 21:144-154. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2008.r01
  18. Newbold, C. J. and D. G. Chamberlain. 1988. Lipids are rumen defaunating agents. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 43:154A.
  19. Patra, A. K., D. N. Kamra, and N. Agarwal. 2006. Effect of spices on rumen fermentation, methanogenesis and protozoa counts in in vitro gas production test. Int. Congr. Ser. 1293:176-179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ics.2006.01.025
  20. Newbold, C. J., B. Lassalas, and J. P. Jouany. 1995. The importance of methanogens associated with ciliate protozoa in ruminal methane production in vitro. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 21:230-234. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.1995.tb01048.x
  21. Nellot, L., D. Demeyer, and W. Verstracete. 1997. Effect of 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid and Peptostreptococcus productus ATCC 35244 addition on stimulation of reductive acetogenesis in the ruminal ecosystem by selective by inhibition of methanogens. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:194-200.
  22. Patra, A. K., D. N. Kamra, and N. Agarwal. 2006. Effect of plant extracts on in vitro methanogenesis, enzyme activities and fermentation of feed in rumen liquor of buffalo. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 128:276-291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2005.11.001
  23. Pilajun, R. and M. Wanapat. 2013. Microbial population in the rumen of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as influenced by coconut oil and mangosteen peel supplementation. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 97:439-445. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2012.01279.x
  24. SAS. 2002. SAS User's Guide: Statistics. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
  25. Theodorou, M. K., B. A. Williams, M. S. Dhanoa, A. B. McAllan, and J. France. 1994. A simple gas production method using a pressure transducer to determine the fermentation kinetics of ruminant feeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 48:185-197. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(94)90171-6
  26. Vogels, G. D., W. F. Hoppe, and C. K. Stumm. 1980. Association of methanogenic bacteria with rumen ciliates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 40:608-612.
  27. Woodward, S. L., G. C. Waghorn, M. J. Ulyatt, and K. R. Lassey. 2001. Early indication that feeding lotus will reduce methane emission from ruminants. Proc. NZ Soc. Anim. Prod. 61:23-26.

Cited by

  1. Effect of feeding of blend of essential oils on methane production, growth, and nutrient utilization in growing buffaloes vol.31, pp.5, 2018, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.16.0508