Roles of Kermanshahi Oil, Animal Fat, Dietary and Non-Dietary Vitamin D and other Nutrients in Increased Risk of Premenopausal Breast Cancer: A Case Control Study in Kermanshah, Iran

  • Salarabadi, Asadollah (Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Islamic Azad University, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch (IAUPS)) ;
  • Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi (Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Islamic Azad University, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch (IAUPS)) ;
  • Madani, Sayed Hamid (Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences)
  • Published : 2015.12.03


Background: Kermanshahi oil is one the most favorable oils in Iran especially in Kermanshah province. We aimed to evaluate the role of usual intake of Kermanshahi oil and other kinds of dietary fats as well as different meats, vegetables and fruits, carbohydrates, cereals, grains, sweets, candy and lifestyle habits in risk of breast cancer. Materials and Methods: A case-control study with 47 consecutive, newly diagnosed premenopausal breast-cancer patients and 105 age and socioeconomic matched healthy women was conducted from 2013-2014 in Imam Reza hospital of Kermanshah using a standardized, validated questionnaire assessing various anthropometric, socio-demographic, lifestyle and dietary characteristics. Results: Kermanshahi oil intake was associated with a 2.1-fold (OR=2.123, 95% CI 1.332-3.38) (p=0.002) higher likelihood of having breast cancer, while daily intake of other solid animal fats also increased the likelihood by 2.8-fold (OR = 2.754, 95% CI 1.43-5.273) (p < 0.001), after various adjustments made. Lack of fish oil, white meat, vegetables, soy products, nuts and dairy products (especially during adolescence) in daily regimens and lack of sun exposure were significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk in this region. Conclusions: This study suggested that animal fat increases the risk of premenopausal breast cancer but many other dietary and non-dietary factors including calcium and vitamin D deficiency are consistently associated with increased odds of breast cancer in this region.


Animal oil;vitamin D;nutrients;breast cancer;Iran


  1. Anderson BO, Jakesz R (2008). Breast cancer issues in developing countries: an overview of the Breast Health Global Initiative. World J Surg, 32, 2578-85.
  2. Ataollahi M, Sedighi S, Masoumi SZ (2014). Nutritional and unhealthy behaviors in women with and without breast cancer. Iran Red Crescent Med J, 16, 19684.
  3. Bidgoli SA, Ahmadi R, Zavarhei MD (2010). Role of hormonal and environmental factors on early incidence of breast cancer in Iran. Sci Total Environ, 408, 4056-61.
  4. Bidgoli SA, Azarshab H (2014). Role of vitamin D deficiency and lack of sun exposure in the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer: a case control study in Sabzevar, Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 3391-6.
  5. Bidgoli SA, Eftekhari T, Sadeghipour R (2011). Role of xenoestrogens and endogenous sources of estrogens on the occurrence of premenopausal breast cancer in Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 2435-30.
  6. Castro-Quezada I, Roman-Vinas B, Serra-Majem L (2014). The Mediterranean Diet and Nutritional Adequacy: A Review. Nutrients, 6, 231-48.
  7. Chandran U, Zirpoli G, Ciupak G, et al (2013). Racial disparities in red meat and poultry intake and breast cancer risk. Cancer Causes Contro, 24, 2217-29.
  8. Ghiasvand R, Adami HO, Harirchi I, et al (2014). Higher incidence of premenopausal breast cancer in less developed countries; myth or truth? BMC Cancer, 14, 1-8.
  9. Grober U, Reichrath J, Holick MF (2015). Live longer with vitamin d? Nutrients, 7, 1871-80.
  10. Li D (2015) .Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and noncommunicable diseases: meta-analysis based systematic review. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 24, 10-5.
  11. Mobarakeh ZS, Mirzaei K, Hatmi N, et al (2014). Dietary habits contributing to breast cancer risk among Iranian women. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 9543-7.
  12. Mourouti N, Papavagelis C, Plytzanopoulou P (2015). Dietary patterns and breast cancer: a case-control study in women. J Nutr, 145, 2109-16.
  13. Naderimagham S, Alipour S, Djalalinia S, et al (2014). National and sub-national burden of breast cancer in Iran; 1990-2013. Arch Iran Med, 17, 794-9.
  14. Najafi T, Eghtesadi S,Rezaei M, et al (2011). The effect of Kermanshahi animal oil on serum lipid profile in healthy men. Behbood Journal, 14, 290-4.
  15. Rosner B, Eliassen AH, Toriola AT, et al (2015). Short-term weight gain and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor classification among pre- and postmenopausal women. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 150, 643-53.
  16. Scott MG, Gronowski AM, Reid IR, et al (2015). Vitamin D: the more we know, the less we know. Clin Chem, 61, 462-5.
  17. Suzuki S, Kojima M, Tokudome S, et al (2013). Obesity/weight gain and breast cancer risk: findings from the Japan collaborative cohort study for the evaluation of cancer risk. J Epidemiol, 23, 139-45.
  18. Wu YC, Zheng D, Sun JJ, et al (2015). Meta-analysis of studies on breast cancer risk and diet in Chinese women. Int J Clin Exp Med, 8, 73-85.
  19. Yang B, Ren XL, Fu YQ, et al (2014). Ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of 274135 adult females from 11 independent prospective studies. BMC Cancer, 14, 105.
  20. Zheng JS, Hu XJ, Zhao YM, et al (2013). Intake of fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: meta-analysis of data from 21 independent prospective cohort studies. BMJ, 346, 3706.

Cited by

  1. Tree nut, peanut, and peanut butter intake and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: The Netherlands Cohort Study pp.1573-7225, 2017,
  2. Modifiable Risk Factors for the Development of Breast Cancer in Young Women vol.24, pp.6, 2018,
  3. Vitamin D exposure and Risk of Breast Cancer: a meta-analysis vol.8, pp.1, 2018,