Association Assessment among Risk Factors and Breast Cancer in a Low Income Country: Bangladesh

  • Ahmed, Kawsar (Department of Information and Communication Technology, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University) ;
  • Asaduzzaman, Sayed (Department of Information and Communication Technology, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University) ;
  • Bashar, Mamun Ibn (Department of Statistics, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University) ;
  • Hossain, Goljar (Department of Statistics, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University) ;
  • Bhuiyan, Touhid (Department of Software Engineering, Daffodil International University)
  • Published : 2015.12.03


Background: In the low incoming country Bangladesh, breast cancer is second most common neoplasm and is increasing at an alarming rate among females. Lack of awareness and illiteracy are contributory factors for late presentation and therefore mortality. Purpose: To examine associations of different factors with breast cancer mortality and to raise awareness among the women of society in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: This descriptive case-control study was conducted on 160 participants from April 2011 till July 2014. Through a valid questionnaire covering personal and family history, data were collected by face to face interview. For analyzing correlations among factors with breast cancer data, binary logistic regression, Pearson's ${\chi}^2$-value, odd ratios and p-value tests were conducted with SPSS version 20. Results: The mean age of the patients was 43.0 ($SD={\pm}11.12$). In ascending order the leading significant factors were hormone therapy (p<0.0000, OR=4.897), abortion (p<0.0001, OR=3.452), early start menarche (p<0.0002, OR=3.500), family history (p<0.0022, OR=3.235), and late menopause (p<0.0093, OR=3.674) with both ${\chi}^2$ test and logistic regression analyses. Non-significant factors were cancer experience, fatty food habits, marital status and taking alcohol. Conclusions: Regarding the investigation of this study, significant and insignificant factor's correlation visualization with breast cancer will be helpful to increase awareness among Bangladeshi women as well as all over the world.


Bangladesh;breast cancer;correlation;data mining;risk factors;regression


  1. Ahmed K, Habib MA, Jesmin T, et al (2013). Prediction of breast cancer risk level with risk factors in perspective to bangladeshi women using data Mining. International J Computer Applications, 82, 36-41.
  2. Akbari A, Hadi A, Tabib AA, et al (2012). Breast cancer risk reduction by parity and breastfeeding, islamic perspective; a case control study. Iran J Cancer Prev, 3, 56-61.
  3. Altay B, Avci IA, Rizalar S, et al (2015). Breast and cervical cancer knowledge and awareness among university students. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 1719-24.
  4. Bilinski K, Byth K, Boyages J (2015). Association between latitude and breast cancer incidence in mainland Australian women", J Cancer Res, 2014, 1-9.
  5. Britt K, Ashworth A, Smalley M (2007). Pregnancy and the risk of breast cancer. Endocrine-Related Cancer, 14, 907-933.
  6. Chlebowski RT, Kuller LH, Prentice RL, et al (2009). Breast cancer after use of estrogen plus progestin in postmenopausal women. New England J Med, 360, 573-87.
  7. Collaborative GHFBC (2012). Menarche, menopause, and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis, including 118 964 women with breast cancer from 117 epidemiological studies. The lancet oncology, 13, 1141-51.
  8. Ahmadloo N, Kani AA, Mohammadianpanah M, et al (2013). Treatment outcome and prognostic factors of adult glioblastoma multiforme. J Egyptian National Cancer Institute, 25, 21-30.
  9. Ahmed K, Emran AA, Tasnuba J, et al (2013). Early detection of lung cancer risk using data mining. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 595-8.
  10. Gathani T, Ali R, Balkwill A, et al (2014). Ethnic differences in breast cancer incidence in England are due to differences in known risk factors for the disease: prospective study. British J Cancer, 11, 224-9.
  11. Ginsburg OM (2013). Breast and cervical cancer control in low and middle-income countries: Human rights meet sound health policy. J Cancer Policy, 1, 35-41.
  12. Kruk J (2015). "Overweight, Obesity, Oxidative stress and the risk of breast cancer". Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 9579-86.
  13. Kye SY, Park EY, Oh K, et al (2014). Perceptions of cancer risk and cause of cancer risk in Korean adults. Cancer Research and Treatment, 47, 158-65.
  14. Love R (2006). Hope for Breast Cancer in Bangladesh.
  15. Liu MX, Li J, Geng YL, et al (2015). Correlation study of knowledge and behavior regarding breast care among female undergraduate students in China. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 10943-7.
  16. Mohaghegh P, Yavari P, Akbari M, et al (2015). Relationships between family levels of socioeconomic status and distribution of breast cancer risk factors. Iran J Cancer Prev, 8, 53-9.
  17. Mohaghegh P, Yavari P, Akbari M, et al (2014). The correlation between the family levels of socioeconomic status and stage at diagnosis of breast cancer. Iran J Cancer Prev, 7, 232-8.
  18. Montazeri AM, Ebrahimi N, Mehrdad, et al (2003). Delayed presentation in breast cancer: a study in Iranian women," BMC women's health, 3, 1-4.
  19. Morse EP, Maegga B, Joseph G, et al (2014). Breast cancer knowledge, beliefs, and screening practices among women seeking care at district hospitals in dar es salaam, Tanzania. Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research, 8, 73-9.
  20. Ozkaraman A, Culha I, Fadiloglu ZC, et al (2015). Relationships between social support and social image concerns in turkish women with breast cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 1795-802.
  21. Shankar A, Rath GK, Roy S, et al (2015). Level of awareness of cervical and breast cancer risk factors and safe practices among college teachers of different states in India: do awareness programmes have an impact on adoption of safe practices? Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 927-932.
  22. Society CC (2011). Breast cancer understanding your diagnosis.
  23. Sun HL, Dong XX, Cong YJ, et al (2015). Depression and the risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 3233-9.
  24. Tabrizi FM (2015). Health promoting behavior and its influencing factors in Iranian breast cancer survivors. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 1729-36.
  25. Tazhibi M, Dehkordi ZF, Babazadez S, et al (2014). Investigation of the age trends in patients with breast cancer and different sizes of tumors in breast cancer research center of Isfahan university of medical sciences in 2001-2010. J Education and Health Promotion, 3, 1-10.
  26. Tinari N, Fanizza C, Romero M, et al (2015). Identification of subgroups of early breast cancer patients at high risk of nonadherence to adjuvant hormone therapy: results of an Italian Survey. Clinical Breast Cancer, 15, 131-7.
  27. Veisy A, Lotfinejad S, Salehi K, et al (2015). Risk of breast cancer in relation to reproductive factors in north-west of Iran, 2013-2014. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 451-5.
  28. White MC, Holman DM, Boehm JE, et al (2014). Age and cancer risk. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 46, 7-15.
  29. Wilson FA, Wang Y, Stimpson JP (2014). The role of sick leave in increasing breast cancer screening among female employees in the U.S. Journal of Cancer Policy, 2, 89-92.
  30. Wright CE, Harvie M, Howell A, et al (2015). Beliefs about weight and breast cancer: an interview study with high risk women following a 12 month weight loss intervention. Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice, 13, 1-9.
  31. Yu JL, Choi DH, Huh SJ, et al (2015). Proportion and clinical outcomes of postoperative radiotherapy omission after breast-conserving surgery in women with breast cancer. Journal Breast Cancer, 18, 50-56.

Cited by

  1. Behavioral risk factors of breast cancer in Bangui of Central African Republic: A retrospective case-control study vol.12, pp.2, 2017,
  2. Reproductive risk factors associated with breast cancer in women in Bangui: a case–control study vol.17, pp.1, 2017,
  3. Depression and Quality of Life among Postmenopausal Women in Bangladesh: A Cross-sectional Study vol.23, pp.3, 2017,