Enhancing Preservice Teachers' Science Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) through Scientific Investigations

미국 초등교사교육 과정 과학교육방법론 수업(Science Methods Course)의 과학적 탐구 활동을 통한 예비교사들의 과학교수학습에 대한 자기 효능감 및 PCK 이해의 향상

  • Received : 2015.08.26
  • Accepted : 2015.10.21
  • Published : 2015.11.30


This study was designed to enhance preservice teachers' self-efficacy beliefs and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) through scientific investigations based on current science education reforms. To do so, a science methods course was revised to include modeling effective scientific inquiry practices as well as designing and teaching scientific investigations in the K-5 practicum classrooms (Revised Science Methods Course). This study assessed the following research questions: (1) What level of PCK do preservice teachers have before and after the completion of RSMC; (2) To what extent do participants change their self-efficacy in science teaching after completing RSMC; and (3) Is there any correlation between participants' changes in self-efficacy and the level of PCK. Participants were 76 preservice teachers enrolled in a science methods course offered at a medium-sized university in the midwestern United States. This study employed the STEBI-B survey and the PCK rubric. There result of the study indicated that there was significant increase in Personal Science Teaching Efficacy (PSTE) of the participant preservice teachers after the completion of the course. Based on the PCK rubric analysis, there was a significant increase in mean scores of the post-RSMC lesson compared to those of the pre-RSMC lesson. The correlational analysis of participants showed a positive correlation between changes in self-efficacy and the level of PCK. Thus, it may be concluded that the reform-based science methods course had a positive impact on participants' self-efficacy in science teaching through correcting misconceptions, developing higher level of PCK, and modeling scientific investigation in their practicum schools.


science self-efficacy;PCK (Pedagogical content knowledge);science methods course;inquiry;preservice teachers


  1. Alfifi, A., Clark, V. A. & May, S. (2011). Practical multivariate analysis (5th Ed.). Salem, OR: CRC Press.
  2. American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1990). Science for all Americans (pp. 1-11). New York: Oxford University Press.
  3. American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2001). Atlas of science literacy. Washington, DC: Author.
  4. Appleton, K. (2003). How do beginning primary teachers cope with science? Toward in understanding of science practice. Research in Science Education, 33, 1-25.
  5. Appleton, K. & Kindt, I. (2002). Beginning elementary teachers' development as teachers of science. Journal of Science Education, 21, 155-168.
  6. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavior change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215.
  7. Banilower, E., Smith, P. S., Weiss, I. R. & Pasley, J. D. (2006). The status of K-12 science teaching in the United States: Results from a national observation survey. In D. Sunal & E. Wright (Eds.), The impact of the state and national standards on K-12 science teaching (pp. 83-122). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
  8. Beyer, C. J. & Davis, E. A. (2012). Learning to critique and adapt science curriculum materials: Examining the development of preservice elementary teachers' pedagogical content knowledge. Science Education, 96(1), 130-157.
  9. Bleicher, R. E. & Lindgren, J. (2005). Success in science learning and preservice science teaching self-efficacy. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 16, 205-225.
  10. Bleicher, R. E. (2004). Revisiting the STEBI-B: Measuring self-efficacy in preservice elementary teachers. School Science and Mathematics, 104(8), 383-391.
  11. Bransford, J., Brown, A. & Cocking, R. (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience and school. Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education of the National Research Council, Washington, DC: National Academy.
  12. Cantrell, P., Young, S. & Moore, A. (2003). Factors affecting science teaching efficacy of preservice elementary teachers. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 14(3), 177-192.
  13. Carrier, S. (2009). The effects of outdoor science lessons with elementary school students on preservice teachers' self-efficacy. Journal of Elementary Science Education, 21(2), 35-48.
  14. Choi, S. (2013). Science teaching self-efficacy and anxiety in pre-service teachers: Its relationship to their conceptual understanding of physical Science. Presented at the 2013 National Conference of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching.
  15. Christol, P. G. & Adams, A. D. (2006). Using the STEBIB determine the impacts of a standards-driven course on pre-service students' sense of personal and teaching efficacy in science education. Paper presented at 2006 Annual Conference of the Association for Science Teacher education. Anchorage, AK.
  16. Davis, E. A., Petish, D. & Smithey, J. (2006). Challenges new science teachers face. Review of Educational Research, 76, 607-652.
  17. Duggan-Haas, D., Enfield, M. & Ashman, S. (2000). Rethinking the presentation of the NSTA standards for science teacher preparation. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 4(3), Retrieved Feb. 12, 2012 from http://
  18. Gall, M. D., Gall, J. P. & Borg, W. R. (2003). Educational research (7th). Boston; Allyn & Bacon.
  19. Gardner, A. L. & Gess-Newsome, J. (2011). A PCK rubric to measure teachers' knowledge of inquiry-based instruction using three data sources. Paper presented at 2011 Annual Conference of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching. Orlando, FL.
  20. Hebert, E., Lee, A. & Williamson, L. (1998). Teachers' and teacher education students' sense of efficacy: Quantitative and qualitative comparisons. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 31(4), 14-225.
  21. Lunenburg, F. C. (2011). Self-efficacy in the workplace: Implications for motivation and performance. International Journal of Management, Business and Administration, 14(1), 1-6.
  22. Magnusson, S., Krajcik, J. & Borko, H. (1999). Nature, sources and development of pedagogical content knowledge for science teaching. In J. Gess-Newsome & N. G. Lederman (Eds.), Examining pedagogical content knowledge: The construct and its implications for science education (pp. 95-132). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
  23. McDonnough, J. T. & Matkins, J. J. (2010). The role of field experience in elementary preservice teachers' selfefficacy and ability to connect to practice. School Science and Mathematics, 110(1), 13-23.
  24. Mulholland, J., Dorman, J. P. & Odgers, B. M. (2004). Assessment of science teaching efficacy of preservice teachers in an Australia University. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 15(4), 313-331.
  25. National Research Council (1996). National science education standards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
  26. National Research Council. (2012). A framework for K-12 science education: Practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
  27. National Science Teachers Association. (2003). Standards for science teacher preparation. Arlington, VA: NSTA.
  28. Nespor, J. (1987). The role of beliefs in the practice of teaching. Journal of Curriculum Study, 18, 197-206.
  29. NGSS Lead States. (2013). Next generation science standards: For states, by states. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
  30. Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers' beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62, 307-332.
  31. Palmer, D. H. (2001). Factors contributing to attitude exchange amongst preservice elementary teacher. Science Education, 86, 122-138.
  32. Park, S. & Oliver, J. S. (2008). National board certification (NBC) as a catalyst for teachers' learning about teaching: The effects of the NBC process on candidate teachers' PCK development. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45(7), 812-834.
  33. Riggs, I. M. & Enochs, L. G. (1990). Further development of an elementary science teaching efficacy belief instrument: A preservice elementary scale. School Science and Mathematics, 90(8), 694-706.
  34. Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4-14.
  35. Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Review, 57(1), 1-21.
  36. Stein, M. K. & Wang, M. C. (1988). Teacher development and school improvement: The process of teacher change. Teaching and Teacher Education, 4, 171-187.
  37. Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1990). Grounded theory: Basics of qualitative research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  38. Swars, S. L. & Dooley, C. M. (2010). Changes in teaching efficacy during a professional development school-based science methods course. School Science and Mathematics, 110(4), 193-202.
  39. Tosun, T. (2000). The beliefs of preservice elementary teachers toward science and science teaching. School Science and Mathematics, 100(7), 374-379.
  40. Van Driel, J. H., Verloop, N. & de Vos, W. (1998). Developing science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35(6). 673-695.<673::AID-TEA5>3.0.CO;2-J
  41. Wee, B., Fast J., Shepardson, D., Harbor, J. & Boone, W (2004). Students' perceptions of environmental-based inquiry experiences. School Science and Mathematics, 104(3), 112-118.
  42. Wh, E. H. & Sutikno. (2015). Self-efficacy as affective domain of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK): The implications for preservice and inservice teachers in science teaching. International Journal of Education and Research, 3(1), 391-404.
  43. Yoon, S., Pedretti, E., Benze, L., Hewitt, J., Perris, K. & Oostveen, R. V. (2006). Exploring the use of cases and case methods in influencing elementary preservice science teachers' self-efficacy beliefs. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 17, 15-35.
  44. Steele, N. A. (2010). Three characteristics of effectiveteachers. Update, 28(2). 71-78.