Impact Shock Components and Attenuation in Flat Foot Running

편평족 달리기 시 충격 쇼크의 성분과 흡수

  • Ryu, Ji-Seon (Department of Health and Exercise Science, College of Lifetime Sport of Korea National Sport University) ;
  • Lim, Ga-Young (Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Hanyang Graduate School of Public Health)
  • 류지선 (한국체육대학교 생활체육대학 운동건강관리학과) ;
  • 임가영 (한양대학교 보건대학원 직업 및 환경보건 전공)
  • Received : 2015.09.04
  • Accepted : 2015.09.29
  • Published : 2015.09.30


Objective : The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the head and tibial acceleration signal magnitudes, and their powers and shock attenuations between flat-footed and normal-footed running. Methods : Ten flat-footed and ten normal-footed subjects ran barefoot on a treadmill with a force plate at 3.22m/s averaged from their preferred running speed using heel-toe running pattern while the head and tibial acceleration in the vertical axis data was collected. The accelerometers were sampled at 2000 Hz and voltage was set at 100 mv, respectively. The peak magnitudes of the head and tibial acceleration signals in time domain were calculated. The power spectral density(PSD) of each signal in the frequency domain was also calculated. In addition to that, shock attenuation was calculated by a transfer function of the head PSD relative to the tibia PSD. A one-way analysis of variance was used to determine the difference in time and frequency domain acceleration variables between the flat-footed and normal-footed groups running. Results : Peaks of the head and tibial acceleration signals were significantly greater during flat-footed group running than normal-footed group running(p<.05). PSDs of the tibial acceleration signal in the lower and higher frequency range were significantly greater during flat-footed running(p<.05), but PSDs of the head acceleration signal were not statistically different between the two groups. Flat-footed group running resulted in significantly greater shock attenuation for the higher frequency ranges compared with normal-footed group running(p<.05). Conclusion : The difference in impact shock magnitude and frequency content between flat-footed and normal-footed group during running suggested that the body had different ability to control impact shock from acceleration. It might be conjectured that flat-footed running was more vulnerable to potential injury than normal-footed running from an impact shock point of view.


  1. Andreasen, J., Molgaard, C. M., Christensen, M., Kaalund, S., Lundbye-Christensen, S., Simonsen, O., & Voigt, M. (2013). Exercise therapy and custom-made insoles are effective in patients with excessive pronation and chronic foot pain-A randomized controlled trial. The Foot, 23(1), 22-28.
  2. Anees G., Saleh, Ashraf, H., & Mohammed. (2012). Kinematic and kinetic analysis in adult subjects suffering from subble or flexible flat foot ersus normal. Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy Cairo University, 17(2), 23-27.
  3. Backmann, C. K. (1997). The Effect of Treadmill Compliance and Foot Type on Electromyography of Selected lower Extremity Muscles during running. Master's thesis, Western Washington University.
  4. Bobbert, M. F., Schamhardt, H. C., & Nigg, B. M. (1991). Calculation of vertical ground reaction force estimates during from positional data. Journal of Biomechanics, 24, 1095-1105.
  5. Boyer, K. A., & Nigg, B. M. (2007). Changes in muscle activity in response to different impact force in human gait. Journal of Biomechanics, 40, 817-822.
  6. Cavanagh, P. R., Valiant, G. A., & Miserich, K. W. (1984). Biological Aspects of Modelling Shoe/Foot Interactions during Running. In: Frederick E. C., editor. Sports shoes and playing surfaces. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics: 24-46.
  7. Chu, M. L., Yazdani-Ardakani, S., Gradisar, I. A., & Askew, M. J. (1986). An in vitro simulation study of impulsive force transmission along the lower skeletal extremity. Journal of Biomechanics, 19, 979-987.
  8. Clement, D. B., Taunton, J. E., Smart, G. W., & McNicol, K. L. (1981). A survey of overuse running injuries. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 13(2), 83.
  9. Cole, G. K., Nigg, B. M., van Den Bogert A. J., & Gerritsen K.G.(1996). The clinical biomechanics award paper, Lower extremity joint loading during impact in running. Clinical Biomechanics, 11, 181-193.
  10. Daoud, A., Geissler, G. J., Wang, F., Saretsky, J., & Daoud Y. A. (2012). Foot strike and injury rates in endurance runners: A retrospective study. Medicine Science Sports Exercise, 44(7), 1325-1334.
  11. Derrick, T. R., Hamill J., & Caldwell G. E. (1998). Energy absorption of impacts during running at various stride lengths. Medicine Science Sports Exercise, 30, 128-135.
  12. Edwards, W. B., Derrick, T. R., & Hamill, J. (2012). Musculoskeletal attenuation of impact shock in response to knee angle manipulation. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 28, 502-510.
  13. Gruber, A. H., Boyer, K. A., Derrick, T. R., & Hamill J. (2014). Impact shock frequency components and attenuation in rearfoot and forefoot running. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 3, 113-121.
  14. Gruber, A. H., Davis, I. S., & Hamill J. (2011). Frequency content of vertical ground reaction force component during rearfoot and forefoot running patterns. Medicine Science Sports Exercise (Suppl.), 43:S42.
  15. Hamill J., Derrick T. R., & Holt, K. G. (1995). Shock attenuation and stride frequency during running. Human Movement Science, 14, 45-60.
  16. Hamill, J., Miller, R., Noehren, B., & Davis I. (2008). A prospective study of iliotibial band strain in runners. Clinical Biomechanics (Bristol, Avon), 23, 1018-1025.
  17. Hennig, E. M., & Lafortune, M. A. (1991). Relationships between ground reaction force and tibial bone acceleration parameters. International Journal of Sports Biomechanics, 7, 303-309.
  18. Hunt, A. E., & Smith, R. M. (2004). Mechanics and control of the flat versus normal foot during the stance phase of walking. Clinical biomechanics, 19(4), 391-397.
  19. Jung, D. C. (2006). A review for the injury mechanism and interventions of patellofemoral pain syndrome. The Official Journal of the Korean Association of Certified Exercise Professionals, 8(1), 25-32.
  20. Kaufman, K. R., Brodine, S. K., Shaffer, R. A., Johnson, C. W., & Cullison T. R. (1999). The effect of foot structure and range of motion on musculoskeletal overuse injuries. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 27(5), 585-593.
  21. Keenan, M. A., Peabody, T. D., Gronley, J. K., & Perry, J. (1991). Valgus deformities of the feet and characteristics of gait in patients who have rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Bone Joint Surgery American, 73(2), 237-247.
  22. Kim, H. Y. (2011). The effect of arch pad on ankle kinematics during running. The Korean Journal of Sports Medicine, 29(1), 43-48.
  23. Kim, J. J. (2003). All that is needed running. Communication Books:Seoul.
  24. Lafortune, M. A., Lake M. J., & Henning E. M.(1996). Differential shock transmission response of the human body to impact severity and lower limb posture. Journal of Biomechanics, 29, 1531-1537.
  25. Leardini, A., Benedetti, M. G., Catani, F., Simoncini, L., & Giannini, S. (1999). An anatomically based protocol for the description of foot segment kinematics during gait. Journal of Clinical Biomechanics, 14, 528-536.
  26. Levinger, P., & Gilleard, W. (2007). Tibia and rearfoot motion and ground reaction forces in subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome during walking?. Gait & Posture, 25(1), 2-8.
  27. Levy, J. C., Mizel, M. S., Wilson, L. S., Fox, W., McHale K., & Taylor D.C.(2006). Incidence of foot and ankle injuries in West Point cadets with pes planus compared to the general cadet population. Foot & Ankle International, 27(12), 1060-1064.
  28. Messier, S. P., Davis, S. E., Curl, W. W., Lowery, R. B., & Pack R. J. (1991). Etiologic factors associated with patellofemoral pain in runners. Medicine Science Sports Exercise, 23, 1008-1015.
  29. Milner, C. E., Davis, I. S., & Hamill, J. (2006). Free moment as predictor of tibial stress fracture in distance runners. Journal of Biomechnics, 39, 2819-2825.
  30. Milner, C. E. Ferber R., Pollard, C. D., Hamill, J., Davis, I. S. (2006). Biomechanical factors associated with tibial stress fracture in famale runners. Medicine Science Sports Exercise, 38(2), 323-328.
  31. Murley, G. S., Menz, H. B., & Landorf, K. B. (2009). A protocol for classifying normal-and flat-arched foot posture for research studies using clinical and radiographic measurements. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 2(1), 1-13.
  32. Murphy, D. F., Connolly, D. A., & Beynnon B. D. (2003). Risk factors for lower extremity injury: a review of the literature. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37, 13-29.
  33. Neumann, D. A. (2010). Kinesiology of the Musculoskeletal System: Foundations for Rehabilitation. 2nd Ed. Elsevier Health Sciences.
  34. Pazit, L., George, S., Murley, Christian, J., Barton, Matthew, P., Cotchett, Simone, R., McSweeney, & Hylton, B. M. (2010). A comparison of foot kinematics in people with normal and flat-arched feet using the Oxford Foot Model. Gait & posture, 32(4), 519-523
  35. Pohl, M. B., Hamill, J., & Davis I. S. (2009). Biomechnical and anatomic factors associated with a history of plantar fasciitis in female runners. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 19, 372-376.
  36. Pohl, M. B., Mullineaux, D. R., Milner, C. E., Hamill J., & Davis I. S.(2008). Biomechanical predictors of retrospective tibial stress fractures in runners. Journal of Biomechanics, 41, 1160-1165.
  37. Queen, R. M., Mall, N. A., Nunley, J. A., & Chuckpaiwong, B. (2009). Difference in plantar loading between flat and normal feet during different athletic tasks, Gait & Posture, 29, 582-586.
  38. Ryu J. S. (2005). Impact shock and kinematic characteristics of the lower extremity's joint during downhill running. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 15(4), 117-129.
  39. Ryu J. S. (2010). Difference of the shoe, dress shoe, and barefoot's impact factors during walking. Korean Journal of Physical Education, 49(1), 445-455.
  40. Shorten, M. (1993). The energetics of running and running shoes. Journal Biomechanics, 26(1sppl), 41-51.
  41. Shorten, M. R., & Winslow, D. S.(1992). Spectral analysis of impact shock during running. International Journal of Sports Biomechanics, 8, 288-304.
  42. Simkin, A., Leichter, I., & Giladi, M. (1989). Combined effect of foot arch structure and an orthotic device on stress fractures. Foot & Ankle International, 10(1), 25-29.
  43. Simon, S. R., Paul, I. L., Mansour, J., Munro, M., Abernethy, P. J., & Radin, E. L. (1981). Peak dynamic force in human gait. Journal of Biomechanics, 14, 817-822.
  44. Smeathers, J. E. (1989). Transient vibrations caused by heel strike. Proceedings Institute Mechanical Engineering H203, 181-186.
  45. Starkey, C., & Ryan, J. L. (2002). Evaluation of Orthopedic and Athletic Injuries. F.A. Davis Co., 245-271.
  46. Stergiou, N., Giakas, G., Byrne, J. E., & Pomeroy. V. (2002). Frequency domain characteristics of ground reaction forces during walking of young and elderly females. Clinical Biomechanics, 17, 615-617.
  47. Verbitsky, O., Mizrahi, J., Voloshin, A., Treiger, J., & Isakov, E. (1998). Shock transmission and fatigue in human running. Journal Applied Biomechanics, 14, 301-311.
  48. Voloshin, A., Mizrahi, J., Verbitsky, O., & Isakov, E. (1998). Dynamic loading on the human musculoskeletal system-effect of fatigue. Clinical Biomechnics, 13, 515-520.
  49. Whittle, M. W. (1999). Generation and attenuation of transient impulsive forces beneath the foot: a review. Gait Posture, 10, 264-275.
  50. Williams, D. S., McClay, I. S., & Hamill, J. (2001). Arch structure and injury patterns in runners. Clinical Biomechanics, 16(4), 341-347.

Cited by

  1. Effect of Leg Length Discrepancy on Gait and Cobb's Angle vol.26, pp.1, 2016,
  2. Relationship between Attenuation of Impact Shock at High Frequency and Flexion-Extension of the Lower Extremity Joints during Downhill Running vol.26, pp.2, 2016,