- Volume 28 Issue 2
DOI QR Code
Addition of a Worm Leachate as Source of Humic Substances in the Drinking Water of Broiler Chickens
- Gomez-Rosales, S. (Faculty of Higher Studies Cuautitlan, UNAM) ;
- Angeles, M. De L. (National Center of Disciplinary Research in Animal Physiology, National Institute of Research in Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock)
- Received : 2014.04.30
- Accepted : 2014.09.01
- Published : 2015.02.01
The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth performance, the apparent ileal digestibility of nitrogen and energy, the retention of nutrients and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected to zero nitrogen retention (AMEn) in broiler chickens supplemented with increasing doses of a worm leachate (WL) as a source of humic substances (HS) in the drinking water. In Exp. 1, 140 male broilers were penned individually and assigned to four WL levels (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) mixed in the drinking water from 21 to 49 days of age. Water was offered in plastic bottles tied to the cage. In Exp. 2, 600 male broilers from 21 to 49 days of age housed in floor pens were assigned to three levels of WL (0%, 10%, and 20%) mixed in the drinking water. The WL was mixed with tap water in plastic containers connected by plastic tubing to bell drinkers. The results of both experiments were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial contrasts. In Exp. 1, the daily water consumption was similar among treatments but the consumption of humic, fulvic, and total humic acids increased linearly (p<0.01) as the WL increased in the drinking water. The feed conversion (p<0.01) and the ileal digestibility of energy, the excretion of dry matter and energy, the retention of dry matter, ash and nitrogen and the AMEn showed quadratic responses (p<0.05) relative to the WL levels in drinking water. In Exp. 2, the increasing level of WL in the drinking water had quadratic effects on the final body weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio (p<0.05). The addition of WL as a source of HS in the drinking water had beneficial effects on the growth performance, ileal digestibility of energy, the retention of nutrients as well on the AMEn in broiler chickens; the best results were observed when the WL was mixed at levels of 20% to 30% in the drinking water.
Broilers;Humic Substances;Production;Ileal Digestibility;Nutrient Balance
- Badaev, S. A., T. Gichner, F. Pospisil, and J. Veleminisky. 1989. Humic acids inhibit the formation but not the mutagenicity of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Mutat. Res. 210:9-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/0027-5107(89)90038-9
- EMEA. 1999. Committee for Veterinary Medical Products. Humic acids and their sodium salts, summary report. Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products. Eur. Agency Eval. Med. Prod. http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Maximum_Residue_Limits_-_Report/2009/11/WC500014416.pdf Accessed April 29, 2014.
- Gomez, R. S., M. L. Angeles, and J. Becerra. 2011. Alternatives for the recycling of animal manures. Use of wormcompost and other derivatives of wormcomposting. Center of Disciplinary Research in Animal Physiology, National Institute for Research in Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock. Technical Publication No. 14, Queretaro, Mexico. pp. 1-64.
- Eren, M., G. Deniz, S. S. Gezen, and I. I. Turkmen. 2000. Effects of humates supplemented to the broiler feeds on fattening performance, serum mineral concentration and bone ash. Ankara Univ. Vet. Fak. Derg. 47:255-263.
- Dobrzanski, Z., T. Trziszka, E. Herbut, J. Krawczyk, and P. Tronina. 2009. Effect of humic preparations on productivity and quality traits of eggs from Greenleg Partridge hens. Ann. Anim. Sci. 9:165-174.
- Ghahri H., R. Habibian, and M. A. Fam. 2010. Effect of sodium bentonite, mannan oligosaccharide and humate on performance and serum biochemical parameters during aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens. Global Veterinaria 5:129-134.
- Gomez, S., M. L. Angeles, M. C. Mojica, and S. Jalukar. 2012. Combination of an enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast and yeast culture with a direct-fed microbial in the feeds of broiler chickens. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 25:665-673. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2011.11316
- Hayirli, A., N. Esenbuga, M. Macit, E. Lacin, M. Karaoglu, H. Karaca, and L. Yildiz. 2005. Nutrition practice to alleviate the adverse effects of stress on laying performance, metabolic profile, and egg quality in peak producing hens: I. The humate supplementation. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1310-1319. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2005.1310
- Herzig, I., M. Navratilova, J. Totusek, P. Suchy, V. Vecerek, J. Blahova, and Z. Zraly. 2009. The effect of humic acid on zinc accumulation in chicken broiler tissues. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 54:121-127.
- Islam, K. M. S., A. Schuhmacher, and J. M. Gropp. 2005. Humic acid substances in animal agriculture. Pakistan J. Nutr. 4:126-134. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2005.126.134
- Joone, G. K., J. Dekker, and C. E. van Rensburg. 2003. Investigation of the immunostimulatory properties of oxihumate. Z. Naturforsch. 58:263-267.
- Jansen van Rensburg, C., C. E. J. Van Rensburg, J. B. J. Van Ryssen, N. H. Casey, and G. E. Rottinghaus. 2006. In vitro and in vivo assessment of humic acid as an aflatoxin binder in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 85:1576-1583. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/85.9.1576
- Ji, F., J. J. McGlone, and S. W. Kim. 2006. Effects of dietary humic substances on pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ammonia emission. J. Anim. Sci. 84:2482-2490. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2005-206
- Joone, G. K. and C. E. van Rensburg. 2004. An in vitro investigation of the anti-inflammatory properties of potassium humate. Inflammation. 28:169-174. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:IFLA.0000039563.90066.5d
- Klocking, R. and B. Helbig. 2005. Medical aspects and application of humic substances. In: Biopolymers for Medical and Pharmaceutical Applications (Eds. A. Steinbuchel and R. H. Marchessault). Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
- Kocabagli, N., M. Alp, N. Acar, and R. Kahraman. 2002. The effects of dietary humate supplementation on broiler growth and carcass yield. Poult. Sci. 81:227-230. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/81.2.227
- Ozturk, E. and I. Coskun. 2006. Effects of humic acids on broiler performance and digestive tract traits. Book of Abstracts of the 57th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production. Antalya, Turkey. 12:301.
- Ozturk, E., I. Coskun, N. Ocak, and G. Erener. 2009. Effects of dietary humic substances on egg production and egg shell quality of hens after peak laying period. African J. Biotechnol. 8:1155-1159.
- Ozturk, E., N. Ocak, I. Coskun, S. Turhan, and G. Erener. 2010. Effects of humic substances supplementation provided through drinking water on performance, carcass traits and meat quality of broilers. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 94:78-85. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2008.00886.x
- Rath, N. C., W. E. Huff, and G. R. Huff. 2006. Effects of humic acid on broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 85:410-414. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/85.3.410
- Ozturk, E., N. Ocak, A. Turan, G. Erener, A. Altop, and S. Cankaya. 2012. Performance, carcass, gastrointestinal tract and meat quality traits, and selected blood parameters of broilers fed diets supplemented with humic substances. J. Sci. Food Agric. 92:59-65. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4541
- Pisarikova, B., Z. Zraly, and I. Herzig. 2010. The effect of dietary sodium humate supplementation on nutrient digestibility in growing pigs. Acta Vet. Brno. 79:349-353. https://doi.org/10.2754/avb201079030349
- Pukhova, G. G., N. A. Druzhina, L. M. Stepchenko, and E. E. Chebotarev. 1987. Effect of sodium humate on animals irradiated with lethal doses. Radiobiologia 27:650-653.
- SAS Institute Inc. 1990. SAS User's Guide: Statistics, Version 6 4th edn. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
- Senn, T. L. and A. R. Kingman. 1973. A Review of Humus and Humic Acids. Research Series Report No: 145. South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, Clemson, SC, USA.
- Stackhouse, R. A. and W. H. Benson. 1989. The effect of humic acid on the toxicity and bioavailability of trivalent chromium. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety. 17:105-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-6513(89)90014-6
- Taklimi, S. M., H. Ghahri, and M. A. Isakan. 2012. Influence of different levels of humic acid and esterified glucomannan on growth performance and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. Agric. Sci. 3:663-668.
- Wang, Q., Y. J. Chen, J. S. Yoo, H. J. Kim, J. H. Cho, and I. H. Kim. 2008. Effects of supplemental humic substances on growth performance, blood characteristics and meat quality in finishing pigs. Livest. Sci. 117:270-274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.12.024
- Yasar, S., A. Gokcimen, I. Altunas, Z. Yonden, and E. Petekkaya. 2002. Performance and ileal histomorphology of rats treated with humic acid preparations. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 86:257-264. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0396.2002.00383.x
- Yoruk, M. A., M. Gul, A. Hayirli, and M. Macit. 2004. The effetcs of supplementation of humate and probiotic on egg production and quality parameters during the late laying period in hens. Poult. Sci. 83:84-88. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/83.1.84
- Effect of humic acids on intestinal viscosity, leaky gut and ammonia excretion in a 24 hr feed restriction model to induce intestinal permeability in broiler chickens vol.89, pp.7, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.13011