DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Anti-protozoal effect of organic acids against Azumiobodo hoyamushi that causes soft tunic syndrome to Halocynthia roretzi

멍게 물렁증의 원인충인 Azumiobodo hoyamushi에 대한 유기산의 살충효과 연구

Lee, Ji Hoon;Park, Kyung Il;Park, Kwan Ha
이지훈;박경일;박관하

  • Received : 2015.09.08
  • Accepted : 2015.12.10
  • Published : 2015.12.30

Abstract

Economic loss by soft tunic syndrome of edible ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi has become a serious problem. Recently, it has discovered that the cause of this syndrome is infection by a protozoan parasite Azumiobodo hoyamushi. However, only a few studies have been conducted to control this parasitic disease. In a previous research, non-specific disinfectants have been found to be effective in controling the causative parasite. In an attempt to eradicate this causative parasite, organic acids were tested in this study to evaluate their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. In vitro tests showed that 8 different organic acids used in this study were moderately or highly effective with protozoan-killing effects ($EC_{50}=153{\sim}275{\mu}g/ml$). Despite weak in vivo penetration of organic acids into the tunic tissues, treatment with high concentration reduced the mortality of ascidian caused by infection the parasite, indicating that we might be able to develop a disinfection method using environmentally-friendly organic acids.

Keywords

Ascidian Halocynthia roretzi;Azumiobodo hoyamushi;Organic acids;Anti-parasitic effect

References

  1. Azumi, K., Usami, T., Kamimura, A., Sabau, W.V., Miki, Y., Fujie, M., Jung, S.J., Kitamura, S., Suzuki, S. and Yokosawa, H.: cDNA microarray analyses reveal candidate marker genes for the detection of ascidian disease in Korea. Zool., Sci., 24: 1231-1240, 2007. https://doi.org/10.2108/zsj.24.1231
  2. Back J. M.: Prospect of seaweed industry culture. East Asia Food Life SCI., spring symposium, April 2007.
  3. Beuchat, L.R. and Golden, D.A. Antimicrobials occurring natu-rally in foods. Food Technol. 43: 134-142, 1989.
  4. Bjornsdottir K, Breidt F, McFeeters RF. Protective effects of organic acids on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in acidic environments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72: 660-664, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.72.1.660-664.2006
  5. Chang S. K., Lee H. H., Hong S. I. and Han Y. S.: Effect of Organic Acid Treatment on the Quality Attributes of Buckwheat Sprout during Storage. Korean J. FOOD SCI. TECHNOL., 42: 190-197, 2010.
  6. Doores S. Organic acids. in: Antimicrobials in Foods.
  7. Branen AL, Davidson PM (eds). Marcel Dekker, Inc., Madison Avenue, NY, USA, pp. 95-124, 1993.
  8. Food and Drug Administration. Listing of food additive status.
  9. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodIngredientsPackaging/default.htm. Accessed Nov. 2, 2009.
  10. Freese, E., Sheu, C.W. and Galliers, E. Function of lipophilic acids as antimicrobial food additives. Nature, 241: 321-325, 1973. https://doi.org/10.1038/241321a0
  11. Hirose, E., Ohtake, S.I. and Azumi, K.: Morphological characterization of the tunic in the edible ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi(Drasche), with remarks on 'soft tunic syndrome' in aquaculture. J. Fish Dis. 32: 433-445, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.2009.01034.x
  12. Hong J. P., Kim Y. S. and Hur S. B.: Effect of Temperature Fluctuation and Different Stocking Densities on Mortality of Sea Squirt, Halocynthia roretzi (von Drashe). J. Aquaculture., 13: 285-293, 2000
  13. Kitamura, S.I., Ohtake, S.I., Song J.Y., Jung, S.J., Oh, M.J., Choi, B.D., Azumi, K., and Hirose, E.: Tunic morphology and viral surveillance in diseased Korean ascidians: soft tunic syndrome in the edible ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi (Drasche), in aquaculture. J. Fish Dis. 33: 153-160, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.2009.01103.x
  14. Kumagai, A., Suto, A., Ito, H., Tanabe, T., Takahashi, K., Kamaishi, T., Miwa, S.:Mass mortality of cultured ascidians Halocynthia roretzi associated with softening of the tunic and flagellate-like cells. Dis. Aquat. Org. 90: 223-234, 2010. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02228
  15. Larsen AG, Vogensen FK, Josephsen J. Antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from sour doughs: Purification and characterization of bavaricin A, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus bavaricus MI401. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 75: 113-122, 1993. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1993.tb02755.x
  16. Park K. H., Zeon S. R., Lee J. G., Choi S. H., Shin Y. K. and Park K. I.: In vitro and in vivo efficacy of drugs against the protozoan parasite Azumiobodo hoyamushi that causes soft tunic syndrome in the edible ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. J. Fish Dis. 37: 309-317, 2013.
  17. Park KJ, Lim JH, Kim BK, Kim JC, Jeong JW, Jeong SW. Effect of aqueous chlorine dioxide and citric acid on reduction of Salmonella typhimurium on sprouting radish seeds. Korean J. Food Preserv. 15: 754-759, 2008.
  18. Poli G, Biondi PA, Uberti F, Ponti W, Balsari A, Cantoni C. Virucidal activity of organic acids. Food Chem. 4: 250-258, 1979.
  19. Ricke SC. Perspectives on the use of organic acids and short chain fatty acids as antimicrobials. Poultry Sci. 82: 632-639, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/82.4.632
  20. Rosenquist H, Hansen A. The antimicrobial effect of organic acids, sour dough and nisin against Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis isolated from wheat bread. J. Appl. Microbiol. 85: 621-631, 1998. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.1998.853540.x
  21. Shin Y. K., Kim H. J., Park K. I., Choi M. S., Jun J. C. and Kim E. O.: Occurrence of bi-flagellated protists in the tunics of ascidians Halocynthia roretzi with tunic-softness syndrome collected from Tongyeong, south coast of Korea. J. fish Pathol., 24: 197-204, 2011. https://doi.org/10.7847/jfp.2011.24.3.197
  22. Statistics Korea: http://kostat.go.kr/portal/korea/kor_nw/3/index.board, 2014.
  23. Veasha M Olson, Swaminathan B, Pratt DE, Stadelman WJ. Effect of five cycle rapid freeze-thaw treatment in conjunction with various chemicals for the reduction of Salmonella typhimurium. Poultry Sci 60: 1822-1826, 1981. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0601822
  24. Yi C. H., Byun Y. S., Hwang B. W. and Kang H. J.: Efficacy of chlorine and lactic acid for reducing pathogenic and spoilage microorganism on chicken skin. Korean J Vet Serv., 22: 441-418, 1999.