Estimating the Validity of CPTED Guidelines on Residence Hall in University: Through the Comparison between CPTED Checklists and Space Syntax Analysis

Han, Dongho;Park, Changbae

  • 투고 : 2015.08.11
  • 심사 : 2015.11.17
  • 발행 : 2015.12.30


University residence halls have become one of the most important issues for students when selecting their academic institutions. However, in South Korea, while universities maintain technologically up-to-date facilities, when it comes to safety or security, the management is unsatisfactory. As a result, the number of violent crime has been increasing. However, there are few researches in terms of practical validity of CPTED Guidelines even though a myriad of researchers study about CPTED Guidelines. Therefore, this study endeavours to investigate the validity of theoretical CPTED Guidelines that to what extent it might be adopted for design process. As a methodology, Space Syntax Convex map and Visibility Graph Analysis (VGA) are chosen. As a result, since the types of space which have a high level of Space Syntax Index are analogous with space treated on CPTED Guidelines, it roughly shows that the theoretical CPTED Guidelines could be adopted in practical architectural design process. Furthermore, it reveals that there is a close relationship between detail design guide stated in CPTED Guidelines and the result of VGA. That is, through the analysis, it is proved that the validity of CPTED Guidelines is quite enough to be adopted in practical design process.


Residence Hall;CPTED;Guidelines;Space Syntax;VGA


  1. Ahn, S., Jang, S. and Shin, K. (2015). A study on the satisfaction, preference and demand of the housing for foreign students in Korea. Journal of The Korean Society of Living Environmental System, 13(1), pp.31-44.
  2. An, S. (2003). A Study on the Characteristics and Satisfaction of the Housing for Foreign Students in Korea. Master. Hanyang University.
  3. Association of Chief Police Officer, (2014). New Schools 2014. London: ACPO Secured by Design.
  4. Becker, G. (1976). The economic approach to human behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  5. Case, F. (1981). Dormitory Architecture Influences: Patterns of Student Social-Relations Over Time. Environment and Behavior, 13(1), pp.23-41.
  6. Choi, H. (2008). An Extension of Space Syntax Model with Layer Depth Weighted Methodology. PhD. Seoul National University.
  7. Choi, J. (2012). A Study on University dormitory Plan considering Historical changes in Spatial configuration. Master. Hongik University.
  8. Choi, J. and Lee, K. (2002). Interpretation of Crime-Prone Locations Through Space Syntax Theory: Burglary Case Studies in Apartment Complex. Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Planning & Design, 18(3), pp.53-61.
  9. Choi, J., Cho, H. and Kim, M. (2005). Spatial Analysis of Multi-Complex Building Based on Visibility of Space. Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Planning & Design, 21(11), pp.93-100.
  10. Choi, Y. and Kang, I. (1995). The Spatial Structure of Crime in Apartment Sites. Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Planning & Design, 9(8), pp.25-33.
  11. Clarke, R. (1997). Situational crime prevention. Monsey, N.Y.: Criminal Justice Press.
  12. Crowe, T. (1991). Crime prevention through environmental design. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.
  13. Do, G., Kim, S., Yoo, J. and Kim, S. (1991). A Study on the Application of Defensible Space to Apartment Housing. Journal of the Korean Institute of Criminology, 91(1), pp.9-140.
  14. Dormitory Authority of the State of New York, (2009). College and University Residence Hall Design Guidelines. New York.
  15. Ha, M. and Lee, H. (2011). A Study on Development of Crime-free Environment in University Campus. Journal of Korea CPTED Association, 2(1), pp.32-46.
  16. Ha, S. (2004). A study on the function space program of university dormitory according to plan types. Master. Gyeongsang National University.
  17. Hillier, B. and Hanson, J. (1984). The Social Logic of Space. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  18. Hwang, Y. (2013). A Study on the Space Analysis of Residential House Plans in Rural New-Town Development Area Using the Space Syntax. Journal of the Korean Institute of Interior Design, 22(5), pp.241-249.
  19. Jacobs, J. (1961). The death and life of great American cities. New York: Random House.
  20. Jeffery, C. (1971). Crime prevention through environmental design. Beverly Hills [Calif.]: Sage Publications.
  21. Jeffery, C. (1990). Criminology: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  22. Jo, Y. (2013). Visiting Pusan National University residence hall after the occurrence of sexual assault. Busan Ilbo. [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 Jul. 2015].
  23. Kang, S. and Park, M. (2011). An Study on the Application of CPTED for Safer Schools. Journal of Korean Institute of Educational Facilities, 18(4), pp.45-56.
  24. Kelling, G. and Wilson, J. (1982). Broken windows: the police and neighborhood safety. Atlantic Monthly, [online] 249(3), pp.29-38. Available at: [Accessed 13 Jul. 2015].
  25. Kim, S. and Kim, D. (2011). A Study on Schemes to Activate CPTED in Housing Complex. Korean Criminal Psychology Review, 7(1), pp.55-78.
  26. Korean Educational Development Institute, (2010). How to Institutionalise CPTED in Korea? : An Effectiveness Analysis of School CPTED. Seoul.
  27. Choi, Y. (1993). A Study on the development of Design to reduce Crime rate in the Apartment Complex. Seoul: Land & Housing Institute.
  28. Lee, J. (2013). The continuous increase of campus sexual assaults. Moneytoday. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Jul. 2015].
  29. Lee, S. (2011). A Study on the Level of the University Library User Satisfaction for International Students and Improvement Plans. Master. Sookmyung Women's University.
  30. Lee, S., Choi, S. and Ha, M. (2010). A Study on the Fear of Crime and Space Design Elements in Campus Library. Journal of the Korea Institute of Ecological Architecture and Environment, 10(5), pp.77-85.
  31. Ministry of Education, (2014). The number of international students in South Korea 2003 - 2014. Seoul: Ministry of Education.
  32. MOLIT, (2013). Enforcement Decree of the Building Act. Seoul: Korea Law Service Center.
  33. Moos, R. (1978). Social Environments of University Student Living Groups: Architectural and Organizational Correlates. Environment and Behavior, 10(1), pp.109-126.
  34. National Crime Prevention Council, (2003). Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Guidebook. Singapore.
  35. Newman, O. (1972). Defensible space. New York: Collier Books.
  36. NSW Police Force, (2007). Residential House and Unit Complex Assessment. New South Wales.
  37. Oh, J. (2008). An Area Analysis of Common and Living Space in University Student Housing. Journal of the Regional Association of Architectural Institute of Korea, 10(1), pp.73-80.
  38. Public Schools of North Carolina State Board of Education Department of Public Instruction, (1998). Safe Schools Facilities Planner: Health and Life Safety School Climate and Order.
  39. Seoul Special City Government, (2009). Seoul Special City Government CPTED guidelines for New Town planning. Seoul.
  40. Sodbileg, S. (2014). Analysis on the Satisfaction of Foreign Students' Living Environment. Master. University of Seoul.
  41. Sohn, J., Kim, J. and Kim, Y. (2015). A Study on Development of CPTED Evaluation Indicators and Assessment of Types in Neighboring Park. Journal of the Korean Society of Civil Engineers, 35(1), pp.237-254.
  42. Song, B. and Roh, J. (2004). A Study on Satisfaction and Behavior in a Residence Hall. Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Planning & Design, 20(1), pp.59-67.
  43. The Florida Center for Community Design + Research, (1993). Florida Safe School Design Guidelines. Florida.
  44. U.S Department of Justice, (1999). The Appropriate and Effective Use of Security Technologies in U.S. Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs.
  45. Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services, (2005). Safety by Design: Creating a Safer Environment in Virginia. Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services Crime Prevention Center.
  46. Woo, Y. (2015). A Study on the Characteristics of Architectural Planning and Dwelling Evaluation of the Dormitory in the National University. PhD. Pukyong National University.
  47. Yang, S., Kim, D., Hwang, Y. and Lee, S. (2015). A Study on Proper Room Ratio Calculation of University Dormitory. Journal of the Regional Association of Architectural Institute of Korea, 17(1), pp.1-8.
  48. Yeon, K. (2007). Configurational Analysis of Cheongju City Street Network Using Space Syntax. Master. Chungbuk National University.
  49. Yun, J. (2012). A Study on Spatial Structure Analysis Using the Integrated Model of Space Syntax and GIS. Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studi, 15(3), pp.13-22.


연구 과제 주관 기관 : Pusan National University