Effect of Visual Perception by Vision Therapy for Improvement of Visual Function

시각기능 개선을 위한 시기능훈련이 시지각에 미치는 영향

  • Received : 2015.10.12
  • Accepted : 2015.12.21
  • Published : 2015.12.31


Purpose: This study was to examine how decline of visual function affects visual perception by assessing visual perception after improving visual function through visual training, and observing the change in the cognitive ability of visual perception. Methods: This study analyzes the visual perceptual evaluation (TVPS_R) of 23 children below age 13($8.75{\pm}1.66$) who have visual abnormalities, and improves visual function after conducting vision training (vision therapy) of the children. Results: Convergence increased from average $3.39{\pm}2.52{\Delta}$ (prism) to $13.87{\pm}6.04{\Delta}$ in the measurement of long-distance disparate points, and from average $5.48{\pm}3.42{\Delta}$ to $18.43{\pm}7.58{\Delta}$ in the measurement of short-distance disparate points. Short-distance diplopia points increased from $25.87{\pm}7.33cm$ to $7.48{\pm}2.87cm$, and as for accommodative insufficiency, short-distance blur points increased from $19.57{\pm}7.16cm$ to $7.09{\pm}1.88cm$. In the visual perceptual evaluation performed before and after improving visual function, 6 items except visual memory showed statistically significant improvement. By order of significant improvement, response gap was highest with $17.74{\pm}16.94$(p=0.000) in visual closure, followed by $15.65{\pm}17.11$(p=0.000) in visual sequential-memory, $13.65{\pm}16.63$(p=0.001) in visual figure-ground, $12.74{\pm}18.41$(p=0.003) in visual form-constancy, $6.48{\pm}10.07$ (p=0.005) in visual discrimination, and $4.17{\pm}9.33$(p=0.043) in visual spatial-relationship. In the visual perception quotient that added up these scores, the response gap was $15.22{\pm}8.66$(p=0.000), showing a more significant result. Conclusions: Vision training enables efficient visual processing and improves visual perceptual ability. It was confirmed that improvement of visual function through visual training not only improves abnormal visual function but also affects visual perception of children such as learning, perception and recognition.


Vision;Visual Function;Visual Dysfunction;Visual perception;Vision Therapy


  1. Cummins RA. Sensory integration and learning disabilities: Ayres' factor analyses reappraised. J Learn Disabil. 1991;24(3):160-168.
  2. Kim JM. Validation of the TVPS-R and an analysis of Korean children's visual-perceptual skills. PhD Thesis. Yonsei University, Seoul. 2007;3.
  3. Lane KA. Developing ocular motor and visual perceptual skills: An activity workbook, 1st Ed. SLACK Incorporated, 2005;13-14.
  4. Hwang MS, Choi SK, Lee IK. Influence of movement education on motor development of visually handicapped children. Journal of adapted physical activity and exercise. 1993;1(1):93-104.
  5. Kurtz LA. Visual perception problem in children with AD/HD, autism, and other learning disabilities, 1st Ed. London: Jessica Kingsley. 2006;48-49,10.
  6. Kavale K. Meta-analysis of the relationship between visual perceptual skills and reading achievement. J Learn Disabil. 1982;15(1):42-51.
  7. Scheiman M, Bruce W. Clinical management of binocular vision, heterophoric, accommodative, and eye movement disorders, 3rd Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2008;121-123.
  8. Goldstein E. Sensation and perception, 7th Ed. Belmont: Thomson Learning, 2007;167-193.
  9. Sterner B, Abrahamsson M, Sjstrm A. The effects of accommodative facility training on a group of children with impaired relative accommodation, a comparison between dioptric treatment and sham treatment. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2001;21(6):470-476.
  10. Scheiman M, Cotter S, Rouse M, Mitchell GL, Kulp M, Cooper J et al. Randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of base-in prism reading glasses versus placebo reading glasses for symptomatic convergence insufficiency in children. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005;89(10):1318-1323.
  11. Shin HS. The effectiveness of vision therapy for symptomatic accommodative infacility in children. J Korean Ophthalmic Opt Soc. 2009;14(3):75-81.
  12. Helveston EM. Visual training, current status in ophthalmology. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140(5):903-910.
  13. Cooper J, Feldman J, Selenow A, Fair R, Buccerio F, MacDonald D et al. Reduction of asthenopia after accommodative facility training. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1987;64(6)430-436.
  14. Borsting E, Rouse MW, Deland PN, Hovett S, Kimura D. Park M, et al. Association of symptoms and convergence and accommodative insufficiency in school-age children. Optometry. 2003;74(1):25-34.
  15. Borsting E, Mitchell GL, Kulp MT, Scheiman M, Amster DM, Cotter S et al. Improvement in academic behaviors following successful treatment of convergence insufficiency. Optom Vis Sci. 2012;89(1):12-18.
  16. Moehler T, Fiehler K. Effects of spatial congruency on saccade and visual discrimination performance in a dualtask paradigm. Vision Res. 2014;105:100-111.
  17. Grossberg S, Srinivasan K, Yazdanbakhsh A. Binocular fusion and invariant category learning due to predictive remapping during scanning of a depthful scene with eye movements. Front Psychol. 2015;14(5):1457.
  18. Self MW, Mookhoek A, Tjalma N, Roelfsema PR. Contextual effects on perceived contrast: figure-ground assignment and orientation contrast. J Vis. 2015;15(2):1-21.
  19. Shin E, Lee H, Yoo SA, Chong SC. Training improves the capacity of visual working memory when it is adaptive, individualized, and targeted. PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):1-14.
  20. Truppa V, Carducci P, Trapanese C, Hanus D. Does presentation format influence visual size discrimination in tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.)?. PLoS One. 2015;10(4):1-18.
  21. McWhirter JJ. The learning disable child: A school and family concern, 2nd ed. Lanham: University Press of America, 1988;47.
  22. Lee KB, Lee HJ, Jun SW, Lee SH, Hong SH, Kim DP et al. A study of correlation among visual-verbal skills, binocular vision and school achievement. Korean J Vis Sci. 2008;10(3):197-216.
  23. Sterner B, Gellerstedt M, Sjstrm A. Accommodation and the relationship to subjective symptoms with near work for young school children. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2006; 26(2):148-155.


Supported by : 대구가톨릭대학교