- Volume 16 Issue 6
Wireless smart sensors, which have become popular for monitoring applications, are an attractive option for implementing structural control systems, due to their onboard sensing, processing, and communication capabilities. However, wireless smart sensors pose inherent challenges for control, including delays from communication, acquisition hardware, and processing time. Previous research in wireless control, which focused on semi-active systems, has found that sampling rate along with time delays can significantly impact control performance. However, because semi-active systems are guaranteed stable, these issues are typically neglected in the control design. This work achieves active control with smart sensors in an experimental setting. Because active systems are not inherently stable, all the elements of the control loop must be addressed, including data acquisition hardware, processing performance, and control design at slow sampling rates. The sensing hardware is shown to have a significant impact on the control design and performance. Ultimately, the smart sensor active control system achieves comparable performance to the traditional tethered system.
smart sensors;structural control;discrete-time control design
- Casciati, S. and Chen, Z.C. (2012), "An active mass damper system for structural control using real-time wireless sensors", Struct. Control Health Monit., 19(8), 758-767. DOI: 10.1002/stc.1485. https://doi.org/10.1002/stc.1485
- Chu, S.Y., Soong, T.T., Lin, C.C. and Chen, Y.Z. (2002), "Time-delay effect and compensation on direct output feedback controlled mass damper systems", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 31, 121-137. DOI: 10.1002/eqe.101 https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.101
- Chung, L.L., Lin, C.C. and Lu, K.H. (1995), "Time-delay control of structures", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 24(5), 687-701. doi:10.1002/eqe.4290240506 https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.4290240506
- Dyke, S.J., Spencer Jr, B.F., Quast, P., Kaspari Jr, D.C. and Sain, M.K. (1996), "Implementation of an active mass driver using acceleration feedback control", Microcomput. Civil Eng., 11, 305-323. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8667.1996.tb00445.x
- Franklin, G., Powell, J. and Workman, M. (1998), Digital Control of Dynamic Systems, 3rd Ed., California: Ellis-Kagle Press.
- Hirata, H. and Powell, J.D. (1990), "Sample rate effects on disturbance rejection for digital control systems", Proceedings of the American Controls Conference, San Diego, CA.
- Housner, G.W., Bergman, L.A., Caughey, T.K., Chassiakos, A.G., Claus, R.O., Masri, S.F., Skelton, R.E., Soong, T.T., Spencer, B.F. and Yao, J.T.P. (1997), "Structural control: past, present, and future", J. Eng. Mech. - ASCE, 123(9), 897-972. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(1997)123:9(897). https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(1997)123:9(897)
- Jang, S. and Rice, J. (2009), "Calibration guide for wireless smart sensors. Illinois structural health monitoring project", http://shm.cs.uiuc.edu/files/docs/CalibrationGuide.pdf (last accessed April 16, 2012).
- Jo, H., Sim, SH., Mechitov, K.A., Kim, R., Li, J., Moinzadeh, P., Spencer Jr., B.F., Park, J.W., Cho, S., Jung, H.J., Yun, C.B., Rice, J.A. and Nagayama, T. (2011), "Hybrid wireless smart sensor network for full-scale structural health monitoring of a cable-stayed bridge", Proceedings of SPIE Conference, San Diego, CA.
- Levis, P., Madden, S., Polastre, J., Szewczyk, R., Woo, A., Gay, D., Hill, J., Welsh, M., Brewer, E. and Culler, D. (2005), "TinyOS : An Operating System for Sensor Networks", Ambient Intelligence, ed. Werner Weber, Jan M. Rabaey, and Emile Aarts, 115-147. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
- Linderman, L.E. (2013), Smart Wireless Control of Civil Structures, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois.
- Linderman, L.E., Mechitov, K. and Spencer, B.F. (2013), "TinyOS-based real-time wireless data acquisition framework for structural health monitoring and control", Struct. Control Health Monit., 20(6), 1007-1020. DOI: 10.1002/stc.1514. https://doi.org/10.1002/stc.1514
- Linderman, L.E., Jo, H. and Spencer, B.F. (2015), "Low-latency data acquisition hardware for real-time wireless sensor applications", IEEE Sens. J., 15(3), 1800-1809. DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2014.2366932 https://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2014.2366932
- Loh, C.H., Lynch, J.P., Lu, K.C., Wang, Y., Chang, C.M., Lin, P.Y. and Yeh, T.H. (2007), "Experimental verification of a wireless sensing and control system for structural control using MR dampers", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 36(3), 1303-1328. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.682
- Lynch, J.P. and Loh, K. (2006), "A summary review of wireless sensors and sensor networks for structural health monitoring", Shock Vib., 38(2), 91-128. https://doi.org/10.1177/0583102406061499
- Lynch, J.P., Wang, Y., Swartz, R.A., Lu, K.C. and Loh, C.H. (2008), "Implementation of a closed-loop structural control system using wireless sensor networks", Struct. Control Health Monit., 15(4), 518-539. https://doi.org/10.1002/stc.214
- Rice, J.A. and Spencer Jr., B.F. (2009), Flexible Smart Sensor Framework for Autonomous Full-scale Structural Health Monitoring, Newmark Structural Engineering Laboratory Report Series, Vol. 18, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois. http://hdl.handle.net/2142/13635.
- Rice, J.A., Mechitov, K.A., Sim, S.H., Spencer Jr., B.F. and Agha, G.A. (2011), "Enabling framework for structural health monitoring using smart sensors", Struct. Control Health Monit., 18(5), 574-587. DOI:10.1002/stc.386. https://doi.org/10.1002/stc.386
- Sain, P.M., Spencer Jr, B.F., Sain, M.K. and Suhardjo, J. (1992), "Structural control design in the presence of time delays", Proceedings of the ASCE Engineering Mechanics Conference, College Station, Texas.
- Soong, T.T. (1990), Active Structural Control: Theory and Practice, Essex, England: Longman Scientific & Technical.
- Spencer, B.F., Dyke, S.J. and Deoskar, H.S. (1998), "Benchmark problems in structural control: part I-Active Mass Driver system", Earthq. Eng. Struct. D., 27(11), 1127-1139. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9845(1998110)27:11<1127::AID-EQE774>3.0.CO;2-F
- Swartz, A., Jung, D., Lynch, J.P., Wang, Y., Shi, D. and Flynn, M.P. (2005), "Design of a wireless sensor for scalable distributed in-network computation in a structural health monitoring system", Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, Stanford, CA.
- Wang, Y., Swartz, R.A., Lynch, J.P., Law, K.H., Lu, K.C. and Loh, C.H. (2006), "Decentralized civil structural control using a real-time wireless sensing and control system", Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Structural Control and Monitoring, San Diego, CA.
- Wang, Y., Swartz, R.A., Lynch, J.P., Law, K.H., Lu, K.C. and Loh, C.H. (2007), "Decentralized civil structural control using real-time wireless sensing and embedded computing", Smart Struct. Syst., 3(3), 321-340. https://doi.org/10.12989/sss.2007.3.3.321
- Tavel, P. 2007 Modeling and Simulation Design. AK Peters Ltd.
- 1. Decentralized Active Control of Multistory Civil Structure with Wireless Smart Sensor Nodes vol.142, pp.10, 2016, doi:10.12989/sss.2015.16.6.1147
- 2. Optimization of the selective catalytic reduction structure of a vehicle based on the improvement in the uniformity of the nitrogen oxides distribution vol.232, pp.2, 2018, doi:10.12989/sss.2015.16.6.1147
연구 과제 주관 기관 : National Science Foundation