Salty Taste Enhancing Effect of Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Anchovy Protein

멸치 단백질 효소가수분해물의 강도평가를 통한 짠맛증진효과

  • 윤소정 (전주대학교 식품산업연구소) ;
  • 차경희 (전주대학교 한식조리학과) ;
  • 신정규 (전주대학교 식품산업연구소)
  • Received : 2015.09.28
  • Accepted : 2015.10.22
  • Published : 2015.12.31


Sodium chloride is known to contribute to the quality and safety of foods. However, there is an increasing interest in reducing the sodium content in foodstuffs, owing to health-related concerns related to its overconsumption. Therefore, the possible use of enzymatically hydrolyzed anchovy protein (eHAP) in enhancing the intensity of the salty taste in model broth was investigated in this study. The sodium chloride content of eHAP was 67.7 g/L. The lightness (L) and yellowness (b) of the model broth increased with increasing eHAP concentration. Additionally, the perceived intensity of the salty taste of eHAP solutions increased with increasing amounts of eHAP at a given NaCl concentration in the model broth. The intensity of the salty taste was enhanced by 0.37-35.58% as eHAP was added. The results suggest that it may be possible to reduce the sodium chloride content in foods by enhancing the salty taste with eHAP.


  1. Lim HJ. Sodium and Nutrition Problem: Background Information on Dietary Reference Intakes and Intake Status for Sodium and Potassium of Korean. pp. 179-183 In: 2011 International symposium and annual meeting. April 27, Kintex, Ilsan, Korea. The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. Seoul, Korea (2011)
  2. Lee JE. Development of spice mixture and plant extract powder for substitution of salt. MS thesis, Woosong University, Daejeon, Korea (2009)
  3. Grollman A. The role of salt in health and disease. Am. J. Cardiol. 4: 593-601 (1961)
  4. KCDC. National health statistics-4th Korean National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey 2009. Korean Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Sejong, Korea (2010)
  5. KCDC. National health staticstics reports-The 7th Korean National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey 2013. Korean Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Sejong, Korea (2014)
  6. McNeely JD, Windham BG, Anderson DE. Dietary sodium effects on heart rate variability in salt sensitivity of blood pressure. Psychophysiology 45: 405-411 (2008)
  7. Song YJ, Paik HY, Joung HJ. A comparison of cluster and factor analysis to derive dietary patterns in Korean adults using data from the 2005 Korea national health and nutrition examination survey. Korean J. Community Nutr. 14: 722-733 (2009)
  8. Caan BJ, Slattery ML, Potter J, Quesenberry jr CP, Coates AO, Schaffer DM. Comparison of the block and the willett self-administrated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires with an interviewer-administrated dietary history. Am. J. Epidemiol. 148: 1137-1147 (1998)
  9. Braschi A, Gill L, Naismith DJ. Partial substitution of sodium with potassium in white bread: Feasibility and bioavailability. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 60: 507-521 (2009)
  10. Shin MG, Lee GH. Sensory and anti-oxidative properties of the spice combinations as salty taste substitute. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 39: 428-434 (2010)
  11. Tamura M, Seki T, Kawasaki Y, Tada M, Kikuchi E, Okai H. An enhancing effect on the saltiness of sodium chloride of added amino acids and their esters. Agr. Biol. Chem. 53: 1625-1633 (1989)
  12. Segawa D, Nakamura K, Kuramitsu R, Muramartsu S, Sano Y, Uzuka Y, Tamura M, Okai H. Preparation of low sodium chloride containing soy sauce using amino acid based saltiness enhancers. Biosic. Biotech. Bioch. 59: 35-39 (1995)
  13. Lee EH, Kim SK, Jeon JK, Cha YJ, Chung SH. The taste compounds in boiled-dried anchovy. Korean J. Fish. Aquat. Soc. 14: 194-200 (1981)
  14. Schindler A, Dunkel A, Sthler F, Backes M, Ley J, Meyerhof W, Hofmann T. Discovery of salt taste enhancing arginyl dipeptides in protein digests and fermented fish sauces by means of a sensomics approach. J. Agr. Food Chem. 59: 12578-1258 (2011)
  15. Halpern BP. Glutamate and the flavour of foods. J. Nutr. 130: 910S-914S (2000)
  16. Barylko-Pikielna N, Kostyra E. Sensory interaction of umami substances with model food matrices and its hedonic effect. Food Qual. Prefer. 18: 751-758 (2007)
  17. Lioe HN, Wada K, Aoki T, Yasuda M. Chemical and sensory characteristics of low molecular weight fractions obtained from three types of Japanese soy sauce (shoyu)-Koikuchi, tamari and shiro shoyu. Food Chem. 100: 1669-1677 (2007)
  18. Park HS, Cho HY, Shin JK. Sodium reduction in salad dressing using fermented soy sauce. Food Eng. Prog. 19: 167-171 (2015)
  19. Park HS, Cho HY, Shin JK. A study of sodium reduction effect in foods using fermented soy sauce. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 47: 468-473 (2015)
  20. Shimono M, Sugitama K. Salty taste enhancing agent and food or drink containing the same. Japan Patent 2008-074862 (2009)
  21. Yun HS, Park HS, Lee MY, Shin JK, Cho HY. A feasibility study on producing salt taste enhancer in the commercial fermented fish and soy sauces. Food Eng. Prog. 19: 139-147 (2015)
  22. Lee SS, Kim SM, Shin IS. Studies on physiological activity of Bacillus subtilis JM-3 isolated from anchovy sauce. Korean J. Food Sci Technol. 35: 684-689 (2003)
  23. Lim SB, Jwa MK, Mok CK, Woo GJ. Quality changes during storage of low salt fermented anchovy treated with high hydrostatic pressure. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 32: 373-379 (2000)
  24. Lim SB, Yang MS, Kim SH, Mok CK, Woo GJ. Changes in quality of low salt fermented anchovy by high hydrostatic pressure treatment. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 32: 111-116 (2000)
  25. Kim MJ, Nahmgung B, Kim BN, Lee SJ, Kim CJ, Cho YJ, Kim CT. Preparation and physicochemical characteristics of anchovy hydrolysates produced by high hydrostatic pressure and enzymatic hydrolysis treatment. Food Eng. Prog. 13: 85-89 (2009)
  26. McGough, MM, Sato T, Rankin SA, Sindelar JJ. Reducing sodium levels in frankfurters using a natural flavor enhancer. Meat Sci. 91: 185-194 (2012)
  27. Kristinsson HG, Rasco BA. Fish protein hydrolysates: Production, biochemical, and functional properties. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. 40: 43-81 (2000)
  28. Kim JW. A study on visualization of taste and colors of tableware. J. Korean Soc. Color Study 26: 107-119 (2012)
  29. Yoo SS. Reaction flavor technique for generation of food flavor. Food Ind. Nutr. 6: 27-32 (2001)
  30. Yokotsuka T. Soy Sauce Biochemistry. Vol. 30. Academic Press Inc., Orlando, FL, USA. pp. 195-329 (1986)

Cited by

  1. Effect of Salinity of Fermented Squid Sauce on Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Test vol.22, pp.3, 2018,
  2. Changes in the physicochemical and microbiological properties of dried anchovy Engraulis japonicus during storage vol.84, pp.6, 2018,