DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Reduction of waterborne microorganisms in treated domestic wastewater for reuse in agriculture: Comparison between floating media filter and sand filter

  • Semsayun, Chalanda (Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University) ;
  • Chiemchaisri, Wilai (Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University) ;
  • Chiemchaisri, Chart (Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University) ;
  • Patchanee, Nopparat (Fisheries Program, Faculty of Agriculture Technology, Sakon Nakhon Rajabhat University)
  • Received : 2015.08.03
  • Accepted : 2015.11.12
  • Published : 2015.12.31

Abstract

This study aims to investigate the use of a floating media filter (FMF) to eliminate waterborne microorganism in treated domestic wastewater for reuse in agriculture. A conventional sand filter (SF) was used concurrently to compare treated water quality. The total/fecal coliforms and somatic coliphage were employed as fecal indicators. The result showed that the FMF was fed with 3 times higher infiltration rate ($15m^3/m^2.h$) than that in the SF ($5m^3/m^2.h$), in which both filters gave similar coliform removal at 6 hours operation. The somatic coliphage elimination tended to increase with operational time for the FMF while that of the SF showed decreasing trend. When a 24 hour continuous operation was applied for the FMF, it showed better removal of somatic coliphage (78%), fecal coliforms (60%) and total coliforms (56%) than that of 6 hour operation. In conclusion, the FMF gave better performance than the SF did by producing a good quality of treated water for agriculture in terms of waterborne microorganisms including turbidity and suspended solids.

References

  1. Kumjaroen T, Chiemchaisri W, Chiemchaisri C. Colonization of microbial biofilms in pipeline of water reuse. Environ. Eng. Res. 2014;19:275-281. https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2014.S1.005
  2. Wu J, Li H, Huang X. Indigenous somatic coliphage removal from a real municipal wastewater by a submerged membrane bioreactor. Water Res. 2010;44:1853-1862 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2009.12.013
  3. Vivaldi GA, Camposeo S, Rubino P, Lonigro A. Microbial impact of different types of municipal wastewaters used to irrigate nectarines in Southern Italy. Agri. Ecosys. Environ. 2013;181:50-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2013.09.006
  4. WHO. Wastewater Use in Agriculture. vol. 2. Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006.
  5. WHO. Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater. vol. 3. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006.
  6. Junli H, Li W, Nanqi R, Frang M. Disinfection effect on chlorine dioxide on bacteria in water. Water Res. 1997;31:607-613. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(96)00275-8
  7. Chiemchaisri C, Passananon S, Ngo HH, Vigneswaran S. Enhanced natural organic matter removal in floating media filter coupled with microfiltration membrane for river water treatment. Desalination 2008;234:335-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2007.09.102
  8. Ari Kauppinen, Martikainen K, Matikka V, et al. Sand filters for removal of microbes and nutrients from wastewater during a one-year pilot study in a cold temperate climate. J. Environ. Manag. 2014;133:206-213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.12.008
  9. Leverenz HL, Tchobanoglous G, Darby JL. Clogging in intermittently dosed sand filters used for wastewater treatment. Water Res. 2009;43:695-705. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.10.054
  10. Winward GP, Avery LM, Frazer-Williams R, et al. A study of the microbial quality of grey water and an evaluation of treatment technologies for reuse. Ecolo. Eng. 2008;32:187-197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2007.11.001
  11. Chiemchaisri W, Chiemchaisri C, Dumrongsukit C, Threedeach, S, Ngo HH, Vigneswaran S. Removal of water-born microorganisms in floating media filter-microfiltration system for water treatment. Biores. Technol. 2011;102:5438-5443. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.12.042
  12. Tanaka Y, Miyajima K, Funakosi T, Chida S. Filtration of municipal municipal sewage by ring shaped floating plastic net media. Warter Res. 1995;29:1387-1392. https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(94)00288-I
  13. Chiemchaisri C, Chiemchaisri W, Kornboonraksa T, Dumrongsukit C, Threedeach S, Ngo HH, Vigneswaran S. Particle and microorganism removal in floating plastic media coupled with microfiltration membrane for surface water treatment. Water Sci. Tech. 2005;51:93-100.
  14. Bangkok Metropolitan Authority. Feasibility study of wastewater reuse for Bangkok metropolitan authority. Bangkok, Thailand: 2013.
  15. American Public Health Association (APHA). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 20th ed. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association; 1998.
  16. Polngam, P, Chiemchaisri W, Kaewmanee A, Chiemchaisri C, Yamamoto K. Chemical characterization in correlation to toxicity evaluation for water reuse of solid waste leachates in the itMBR-RO system. J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. 2015;17:2:237-248. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10163-014-0310-6
  17. Aiello R, Cirelli GL, Consoli S. Effects of reclaimed wastewater irrigation on soil and tomato fruits: a case study in Sicily (Italy). Agric. Water Manage. 2007;93:65-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2007.06.008
  18. Almuktar S.A.A.A.N, M Scholz M. Microbial contamination of Capsicum annuum irrigated with recycled domestic wastewater treated by vertical-flow wetlands. Ecolo. Eng. 2015;82:404-414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2015.05.029
  19. Chiemchaisri C, Panchawaranon C, Rutchatanunti S, Kludpiban A, Ngo HH, Vigneswaran S. Development of floating plastic media filtration system for water treatment and wastewater reuse. J. Environ. Sci. Health Part A. 2003;38:2359-2368. https://doi.org/10.1081/ESE-120023403
  20. Zhu B, Clifford DA. Chellam S. Comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation pretreatment for enhanced virus removal using microfiltration membranes. Water Res. 2005;39: 3098-3108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2005.05.020