Acoustic Features of Oral Vowels in the Esophagus Speakers

식도음성의 모음종류에 따른 음향학적 특성

Yun, Eunmi;Mok, Eunhee;Minh, Phan huu Ngoc;Hong, Kihwan

  • Received : 2015.11.10
  • Accepted : 2015.12.19
  • Published : 2015.12.31


This study aimed to establish characteristics related to voice and speech through the natural base frequency analysis of esophagus vocalization. In the study, 8 subjects were selected for esophagus vocals, and 10 other subjects were selected for a control group. MDVP(Multi-dimensional Voice Program, Model 4800, USA, 2001), Multi Speech(Model 3700, Kaypantax, USA, 2008) were used as experiment equipment. The speech samples selected for evaluation were vowels and sentences (both declarative and interrogative). For acoustic analysis, the intonation form of fo, jitter, energy, shimmer, HNR, and intonation patterns of the speech sample were measured. The results were as follows: First, the natural intrinsic frequency of extended vowels in the esophagus vocal group was lower than the frequency in the normal vocal group. In particular, the intrinsic frequency difference for high vowel /i/ was much greater than the frequency difference for low vowel /a/. Second, the jitter values of the esophagus vocal group were higher than the control group. In particular, there was a large difference between the jitter values for /a/ and /i/, with the jitter values being highest for /i/. Third, there was no significant difference in vocal strength between the esophagus vocal patient group and the control group. Fourth, the shimmer values of the voices in the esophagus vocal group were higher than shimmer values in the control group. In particular, there was a large difference in shimmer values for low vowel /a/. Fifth, the HNR values of the esophagus vocal group were showed significantly lower than the control group. In particular, the largest difference in HNR values between the two groups was for high vowel /i/. Sixth, the pitch contours of interrogative and declarative sentences of the esophagus vocal patient group showed a different form or only had with small differences compared to the pitch contours of the normal vocal group, thus presenting an inconsistent pattern.


esophageal voice;vowel;voice quality;MDVP


  1. S.E. Sedory, S.L. Hamlet, N.P. Connor. (1989). Comparisons of perceptual and acoustic characteristics of tracheoesophageal and excellent esophageal speech, Journal of speech an hearing disorders. Vol. 54, 209-214.
  2. Bennett S., Weinberg B. (1973). Acceptability ratings of normal esophageal and artificial larynx speech, Journal of speech and Hearing Research. Vol. 16, 608-615.
  3. Andrew Sekey. (1982). Eletroacoustic analysis and enhancement of alaryngeal speech. United States: Charles C. Thomas.
  4. Nancy L., Weinberg B. (1972). Formant Frequency Characteristics of esophageal speech. Journal of speech and Hearing Research. Vol. 15, 439-448.
  5. Park, K. J., Choi, H. S., Chung, H. J., Yoo, S. Y., Park, J. H., Kim, H. S., (1998). The Aerodynamic Analysis between Normal Voice and Esophageal Voice, The journal of the Korean Society of Logopedics and Phoniatrics, Vol. 9, No. 1, 5-10. (박국진, 최홍식, 정형진, 유신영, 박준호, 김한수 (1998). 정상인과 식도발성 음성에서의 공기역학적 비교 연구. 대한후두음성언어의학회지, 9(1), 5-10.)
  6. Gandour J, Weinberg B. (1983). Perception of Intonational Contrasts in Alaryngeal Speech, Journal of speech and Hearing Research. Vol. 26, 142-148.
  7. Ohala JJ. (1973). Explanation for the intrinsic pitch of vowels. Berkeley: Phonology Laboratory University of California.
  8. Atkinson JE. (1978). Correlation analysis of the physiological factors controlling fundamental voice frequency, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. Vol. 63, 211-222.
  9. Hong, K. H., Kim, S. W., Kim. H. G. (1998). Intrinsic Fundamental Frequency(Fo) of Vowels in the Esophageal Speech, The Journal of the Korean society of phoniatrics and logotedics. Vol. 9, No. 2, 142-146. (홍기환, 김성완, 김현기 (1998). 식도음성의 고유기저주파수 발현 현상. 대한음성언어의학회지, 9(2), 142-146.)
  10. Ko, D. H., Jeong, O. R., et al. (2001). Umseong mit eoneobunseokgigi Whalyongbeop. Seoul: Hankukmunwhasa. (고도흥, 정옥란 외 공편 (2001). 음성 및 언어 분석기기 활용법, 한국문화사.)
  11. Snidecor J.C., Curry E.T. (1959). Temporal and pitch aspects of superior esophageal speech, The Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology. Vol. 68, 1-14.
  12. Smith B., Weinberg B., Feth L.L., Horii Y. (1978). Vocal jitter and roughness characteristics of vowels produced by esophageal speaker. Journal of speech and Hearing Research. Vol. 21, 240-249.
  13. Weinberg B. (1980). Readings in Speech Following Total Laryngectom. Baltimore: Univ Park.
  14. Yumoto, Eiji Sasaki, Yumi Okamura, Hiroshi. (1984). Harmonics-to-noise ratio and psychophysical measurement of the degree of hoarseness, Journal of speech and Hearing Research. Vol. 27, 2-6.
  15. Choi, S. H., Choi, H. S., Kim, H. S., Lim, S. E., Lee, S. H., Pyo, H. Y. (2003). Analysis of Acoustic Characteristics of Vowel and Consonants Production Study on Speech Proficiency in Esophageal Speech, Speech science. Vol. 3, No. 3, 7-27. (최성희, 최홍식, 김한수, 임성은, 이성은, 표화영 (2003). 식도 발성의 숙련 정도에 따른 모음의 음향학적 특징과 자음 산출에 대한 연구. 음성과학, 10(3), 7-27.)
  16. Cynthia B. Angermeier, Weinberg B. (1981). Some aspect of fundamental frequency control by esophageal speakers, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Vol. 46, 85-91.