- Volume 32 Issue 5
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among self-rated health and socioeconomic status. Methods: Analyses were conducted based on cross-sectional data obtained from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. A total of 79,202 students aged 12 to 18 years participated in the study and there was a response rate of 95.5%. Separate logistic regression analyses were performed on each gender group based on a set of independent variables. Those being: the level of parental education level; family affluence scale; subjective household economic status; and subjective school achievement with SRH as the dependent variable. Results: Multivariate analyses revealed significant associations between each SES and adolescent SRH after controlling for other covariates. However, in the models that included all SES indicators, subjective household economic status and subjective school achievement remained significant in boys and girls. Conclusions: The findings demonstrated that subjective SES indicators are more closely related to adolescent SRH when compared with objective indicators.
socioeconomic status;self-rated health;adolescents
- Adler, N. E., Epel, E. S., Castellazzo, G., & Ickovics, J. R. (2000). Relationship of subjective and objective social status with psychological and physiological functioning: preliminary data in healthy white women. Health Psychology, 19(6), 586-592. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6126.96.36.1996
- An, J. S., & Kim, H. J. (2013). A study on the determinants of children and adolescents' health inequality in Korea. Studies on Korean Youth, 24, 205-231.
- Bailis, D. S., Segall, A., & Chipperfield, J. G. (2003). Two views of self-rated general health status. Social Science & Medicine, 56, 203-217. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(02)00020-5
- Barros, M. B., Zanchetta, L. M., de Moura, E. C., & Malta, D. C. (2009). Self rated health and associated factors, Brazil, 2006. Rev Saude Publica 43(suppl 2), 27-37. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102009000900005
- Boardman, J. D. (2006). Self-rated health among U.S. adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 38(4), 401-408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2005.01.006
- Breidablik, H. J., Meland, E., & Lydersen, S. (2008). Self- rated health in adolescence: A multifactorial composite. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 43, 246-252.
- Chen, E., & Paterson, L. Q. (2006). Neighborhood, Family and Subjective Socioeconomic Status: How Do They Relate to Adolescent Health? Health Psychology, 25(6), 704-714. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6188.8.131.524
- Chen, E., Matthews, K. A., & Boyce, W. T. (2002). Socioeconomic differences in children's health: how and why do these relationships change with age? Psychological Bulletin, 128(2), 295-329. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.128.2.295
- Currie, C., Molcho, M., Boyce, W., Holstein, B., Torsheim, T., & Richter, M. (2008). Researching health inequalities in adolescents: the development of the health behavior in school-aged children (HBSC) Family Affluence Scale. Social Science & Medicine, 66(6), 1429-1436. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.11.024
- Duarte-Salles, T., Pasarin, M. I., Borrell, C., Rodriguez-Sanz, M., Rajmil, L., Ferrer, M., Pellise, F., & Balague, F. (2011). Social inequalities in health among adolescents in a large southern European city. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 65, 166-173. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2009.090100
- Ensminger, M. E., Forrest, C. B., Riley, A. W., Kang, M., Green, B. F., Satrfield, B., & Ryan, S. A. (2000). The validity of measures of socioeconomic status of adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 15(3), 392-419. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558400153005
- Fismen, A. S., Samdal, O., & Torsheim, T. (2012). Family affluence and cultural capital as indicators of social inequalities in adolescent's eating behaviors: a population-based survey. BMC Public Health, 12, 1036-1044. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-1036
- Goodman, E., Huang, B., Schafer-Kalkhoff, T., & Adler, A. E. (2007). Perceived Socioeconomic Status: A new type of identity which influence adolescents' self- rated health. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, 479-487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.05.020
- Hagquist, C. E. (2006). Health inequalities among adolescents-the impact of academic orienation and parents' education. European Journal of Public Health, 17(1), 21-26.
- Heshmat, R., Kelishadi, R., Motamed-Gorji, N., Motlagh, M. E., Ardalan, G., Arifirad, T., Rastad, H., Asayesh, H., Djalalinia, S., Larijani, B., & Qorbani, M. (2015). Association between body mass index and perceived weight status with self-rated health and life satisfaction in Iranian children and adolscents: the CASPIAN- III study. Quality life Research, 24(1), 263-272. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-014-0757-x
- Iversen, A. C., & Holsen, I. (2008). Inequality in health, psychosocial resources and health behavior in early adolescence: the influence of different indicators of socioeconomic position. Child Indicators Research, 1, 291-302. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-008-9015-5
- Jung, S. H., Tsakos, G., Sheiham, A., Ryu, J. I., & Watt, R. G. (2010). Socio-economic status and oral health-related behaviors in Korean adolescents. Social Science & Medicine, 70(11), 1780-1788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.02.022
- Khang, Y. H., Cho, S. I., Yang, S., & Lee, M. S. (2005). Socioeconomic differentials in health and health related behaviors: finding from the Korea Youth Panel Survey. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, 38, 391-400.
- Kent, E. E., Sender, L. S., Morris, R. A., Grigsby, T. J., Montoya, M. J., Ziogas, A., et al. (2013). Multilevel socioeconomic effects on quality of life in adolescent and young adult survivors of leukemia and lymphoma. Quality of Life Research, 22(6), 1339-1351. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-012-0254-z
- Koivusilta, L. K., Rimpela, A. H., & Kautiainenk, S. M. (2006). Health inequality in adolescence. Does stratification occur by familial social background, family affluence, or personal social position? BMC Public Health, 6, 110-118. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-6-110
- Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Instructions for the Statistics of 7th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) in 2011. Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
- Korea National Statistical Office. (2012). International statistics yearbook. Korea National Statistical Office, Seoul.
- Korea National Statistical Office. (2013). Major features and analysis of change across the life-cycle. Korea National Statistical Office, Seoul.
- Lee, H., Harris, K. M., & Lee, J. (2013). Multiple levels of social disadvantage and links to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of School Health, 83(3), 139-149. https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12009
- Lemeshow, A. R., Fisher, L., Goodman, E., Kawachi, I., Berkey, C. S., & Colditz, G. A. (2008). Subjective social status in the school and change in adiposity in female adolescents: findings from a prospective cohort study. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 162(1), 23-28. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpediatrics.2007.11
- Mariu, K. R., Merry, S. N., Robinson, E. M., & Wason, P. D. (2012). Seeking professional help for mental health problems, among New Zealand secondary school students. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17(2), 284-297. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359104511404176
- Mazzuco, S., & Meggiolaro, S. (2014). Family structures and health behaviors in adolescents. Child Indicators Research, 7, 155-175. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-013-9207-5
- Mechanic, D., & Hansell, S. (1987). Adolescent competence, psychological well-being, and self-assessed physical health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 28, 364-374. https://doi.org/10.2307/2136790
- Moor, I., Rathmann, K., Stronks, K., Levin, K., Spallek, J., & Richiter, M. (2014). Psychosocial and behavioral factors in the explanation of socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health: a multilevel analysis in 28 European and North American countries. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 68, 912-921. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech-2014-203933
- O' Farrell, A., Flanagan. E., Bedford, D., James, D., & Howell, F. (2005). Factors associated with self-reported depression and self-esteem among school-going adolescents from a geographically defined region in Ireland. Irish Journal of Medical Science, 174(4), 17-22.
- Page, R. M., & Suwanteerangkul, J. (2009). Self- rated health, psychosocial functioning, and health-rated behavior among Thai adolescents. Pediatrics International, 51, 120-125. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-200X.2008.02660.x
- Piko, B. (2007). Self-perceived health among adolescents: the role of gender and psychosocial factors. European Journal of Pediatrics, 166, 701-708. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-006-0311-0
- Piko, B., F., & Fitzpatrick, K. M. (2001). Does class matter? SES and psychosocial health among Hungarian adolescents. Social Sciences & Medicine, 53, 817-830. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(00)00379-8
- Piko, B. F., & Fitzpatrick, K. M. (2007). Socioeconomic status, psychosocial health and health behaviors among Hungarian adolescents. European Journal of Public Health, 17(4), 353-360. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckl257
- Quon, E. C. & McGrath, J. J. Subjective socioeconomic status and adolescent health: a meta-analysis. Health Psychology, 33(5), 433-447.
- Richer, M., Moor, I., & van Lenthe, F. J. (2012). Explaining socioeconomic differences in adolescent self-rated health: the contribution in material, psychosocial and behavioral factors. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 66, 691-697. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2010.125500
- Rueden, U. V., Gosch, A., Rajmil, L., Bisegger, C., Ravens-Sieberer, U., & European KIDSCREEN group. (2006). Socioeconomic determinants of health related quality of life in childhood and adolescence: results from a European study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 60, 130-135. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2005.039792
- Torsheim, T., Currie, C., Boyce, W., Kalnins, I., Overpeck, M., & Haugland, S. (2004). Material deprivation and self-rated health: a multilevel study of adolescents from 22 European and North American countries. Social Sciences & Medicine, 59, 1-12.. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2003.09.032
- Tremblay, S., Dahinten, S., & Kohen, D. (2003). Factors related to adolescents' self-perceived health. Health Reports, 14( suppl), 7-16.
- Vingilis, E. R., Wade, T. J., & Seeley, J. S. (2002). Predictors of adolescent self-rated health. Analysis of the National Population Health Survey. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 93, 193-197.
- Wardle, J., Robb, K., & Johnson, F. (2002). Assessing socioeconomic status in adolescents: the validity of a home affluence scale. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 56, 595-599. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.56.8.595
- West, P. (1997). Health inequalities in the early years: Is there equalisation in youth? Social Science and Medicine, 44, 833-858. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(96)00188-8
- Xu, Z., Su, H., Chen, J., Wu, J., & Chang, W. (2011). Self-rated health of chinese adolescents: distribution and its associated factors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 25, 780-786. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6712.2011.00893.x