Development of inactivated Akabane and bovine ephemeral fever vaccine for cattle

  • Yang, Dong-Kun (Viral disease division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency) ;
  • Kim, Ha-Hyun (Viral disease division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency) ;
  • Jo, Hyun-Ye (Viral disease division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency) ;
  • Choi, Sung-Suk (Viral disease division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency) ;
  • Cho, In-Soo (Viral disease division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency)
  • Received : 2015.03.24
  • Accepted : 2015.11.10
  • Published : 2015.12.31


Akabane and bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) viruses cause vector-borne diseases. In this study, inactivated Akabane virus (AKAV)+Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) vaccines with or without recombinant vibrio flagellin (revibFlaB) protein were expressed in a baculovirus expression system to measure their safety and immunogenicity. Blood was collected from mice, guinea pigs, sows, and cattle that had been inoculated with the vaccine twice. Inactivated AKAV+BEFV vaccine induced high virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) titer against AKAV and BEFV in mice and guinea pigs. VNA titers against AKAV were higher in mice and guinea pigs immunized with the inactivated AKAV+BEFV vaccine than in animals inoculated with vaccine containing revibFlaB protein. Inactivated AKAV+BEFV vaccine elicited slightly higher VNA titers against AKAV and BEFV than the live AKAV and live BEFV vaccines in mice and guinea pigs. In addition, the inactivated AKAV+BEFV vaccine was safe, and induced high VNA titers, ranging from 1 : 64 to 1 : 512, against both AKAV and BEFV in sows and cattle. Moreover, there were no side effects observed in any treated animals. These results indicate that the inactivated AKAV+BEFV vaccine could be used in cattle with high immunogenicity and good safety.


  1. Bahnemann HG. Inactivation of viral antigens for vaccine preparation with particular reference to the application of binary ethylenimine. Vaccine 1990, 8, 299-303.
  2. Hayashi F, Smith KD, Ozinsky A, Hawn TR, Yi EC, Goodlett DR, Eng JK, Akira S, Underhill DM, Aderem A. The innate immune response to bacterial flagellin is mediated by Toll-like receptor 5. Nature 2001, 410, 1099-1103.
  3. Hong SH, Byun YH, Nguyen CT, Kim SY, Seong BL, Park S, Woo GJ, Yoon Y, Koh JT, Fujihashi K, Rhee JH, Lee SE. Intranasal administration of a flagellinadjuvanted inactivated influenza vaccine enhances mucosal immune responses to protect mice against lethal infection. Vaccine 2012, 30, 466-474.
  4. Hsieh YC, Chen SH, Chou CC, Ting LJ, Itakura C, Wang FI. Bovine ephemeral fever in Taiwan (2001-2002). J Vet Med Sci 2005, 67, 411-416.
  5. Kato T, Aizawa M, Takayoshi K, Kokuba T, Yanase T, Shirafuji H, Tsuda T, Yamakawa M. Phylogenetic relationships of the G gene sequence of bovine ephemeral fever virus isolated in Japan, Taiwan and Australia. Vet Microbiol 2009, 137, 217-223.
  6. Kim YH, Kweon CH, Tark DS, Lim SI, Yang DK, Hyun BH, Song JY, Hur W, Park SC. Development of inactivated trivalent vaccine for the teratogenic Aino, Akabane and Chuzan viruses. Biologicals 2011, 39, 152-157.
  7. Kim YH, Oem JK, Lee EY, Lee KK, Kim SH, Lee MH, Park SC. Seroprevalence of five arboviruses in sentinel cattle as part of nationwide surveillance in South Korea, 2009-2012. J Vet Med Sci 2015, 77, 247-250.
  8. Kurogi H, Akiba K, Inaba Y, Matumoto M. Isolation of Akabane virus from the biting midge Culicoides oxystoma in Japan. Vet Microbiol 1987, 15, 243-8.
  9. Lee SE, Kim SY, Jeong BC, Kim YR, Bae SJ, Ahn OS, Lee JJ, Song HC, Kim JM, Choy HE, Chung SS, Kweon MN, Rhee JH. A bacterial flagellin, Vibrio vulnificus FlaB, has a strong mucosal adjuvant activity to induce protective immunity. Infect Immun 2006, 74, 694-702.
  10. Lim SI, Kweon CH, Tark DS, Kim SH, Yang DK. Serosurvey on Aino, Akabane, Chuzan, bovine ephemeral fever and Japanese encephalitis virus of cattle and swine in Korea. J Vet Sci 2007, 8, 45-49.
  11. Nichol ST, Beaty BJ, Elliott RM, Goldbach R, Plyusnin A, Schmaljohn CS, Tesh RB. Family Bunyaviridae. In: Fauguet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, Desselberger U, Ball LA (eds.). Virus Taxonomy. Eighth Report of International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses. pp. 695-716, Academic Press, San Diego, 2005.
  12. Oem JK, Kim YH, Kim SH, Lee MH, Lee KK. Serological characteristics of affected cattle during an outbreak of bovine enzootic encephalomyelitis caused by Akabane virus. Trop Anim Health Prod 2014, 46, 261-263.
  13. Oem JK, Lee KH, Kim HR, Bae YC, Chung JY, Lee OS, Roh IS. Bovine epizootic encephalomyelitis caused by Akabane virus infection in Korea. J Comp Pathol 2012, 147, 101-105.
  14. Oem JK, Yoon HJ, Kim HR, Roh IS, Lee KH, Lee OS, Bae YC. Genetic and pathogenic characterization of Akabane viruses isolated from cattle with encephalomyelitis in Korea. Vet Microbiol 2012, 158, 259-266.
  15. Park JH. Requirements for improved vaccines against footand-mouth disease epidemics. Clin Exp Vaccine Res 2013, 2, 8-18.
  16. Tonbak S, Berber E, Yoruk MD, Azkur AK, Pestil Z, Bulut H. A large-scale outbreak of bovine ephemeral fever in Turkey, 2012. J Vet Med Sci 2013, 75, 1511-1514.
  17. Walker PJ. Bovine ephemeral fever in Australia and the world. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2005, 292, 57-80.
  18. Wunner WH, Calisher CH, Dietzgen RG, Jackson AO, Kitajima EW, Lafon M, Leong JC, Nichol S, Peters D, Smith JS, Walker PJ. Rhabdoviridae. In: Murphy FA, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Ghabrial SA, Jarvis AW, Martelli GP, Mayo MA, Summers MD (eds). Virus Taxonomy. Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses. pp. 275-288, Springer-Verlag Wien, New York, 1995.
  19. Yang DK, Kim BH, Kweon CH, Nah JJ, Kim HJ, Lee KW, Yang YJ, Mun KW. Serosurveillance for Japanese encephalitis, Akabane, and Aino viruses for Thoroughbred horses in Korea. J Vet Sci 2008, 9, 381-385.
  20. Yang DK, Kim YH, Kim BH, Kweon CH, Yoon SS, Song JY, Lee SH. Characterization of Akabane virus (KV0505) from cattle in Korea. Korean J Vet Res 2008, 48, 61-66.
  21. Zheng F, Qiu C. Phylogenetic relationships of the glycoprotein gene of bovine ephemeral fever virus isolated from mainland China, Taiwan, Japan, Turkey, Israel and Australia. Virol J 2012, 9, 268.