DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

A novel biomarker of exercise-induced stress in horses

말의 운동 스트레스에 관한 새로운 생물지표

  • Received : 2015.10.27
  • Accepted : 2015.12.24
  • Published : 2015.12.31

Abstract

Exercise is one of the most common stressors in horses. Although various physiological parameters such as cortisol respond to exercise, there is no reliable parameter for the measurement of exercise-induced stress in sport horses. This study was performed to discover a new biomarker with high sensitivity for exercise-induced stress. The expression of fos mRNA was increased more than 10-fold in horse blood samples collected after an hour of exercise, as compared with before the exercise. The plasma cortisol levels were also increased after the exercise, but only by about two-fold. The fos mRNA levels were well-correlated with plasma cortisol concentrations. These findings suggest that fos mRNA expression in blood may be useful for the measurement of exercise-induced stress in horses.

Keywords

biomarker;exercise;fos;horse;stress

References

  1. Cacioppo JT, Berntson GG. Integrative neuroscience for the behavioral sciences: implications for inductive inference. In: Handbook of Neuroscience for the Behavioral Science. pp. 3-11. John Wiley & sons, New Jersey, 2009.
  2. Capomaccio S, Vitulo N, Verini-Supplizi A, Barcaccia G, Albiero A, D'Angelo M, Campagna D, Valle G, Felicetti M, Silvestrelli M, Cappelli K. RNA sequencing of the exercise transcriptome in equine athletes. PLoS One 2013, 8, e83504. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083504
  3. Carlson GP. Hematology and body fluids in the equine athlete: a review. In: Gillespie JR, Robinson NE (eds.). Equine Exercise Physiology 2. pp. 393-425. ICEEP publications, Davis, 1987.
  4. Cho S, Park EM, Kim Y, Liu N, Gal J, Volpe BT, Joh TH. Early c-fos induction after cerebral ischemia: a possible neuroprotective role. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2001, 21, 550-556. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004647-200105000-00009
  5. Couetil LL, Sojka JE, Nachreiner RF. Primary hypoparathyroidism in a horse. J Vet Intern Med 1998, 12, 45-49. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.1998.tb00496.x
  6. Cummings M. Increased c-fos expression associated with hyperthermia-induced apoptosis of a Burkitt lymphoma cell line. Int J Radiat Biol 1995, 68, 687-692. https://doi.org/10.1080/09553009514551701
  7. Ferlazzo A, Medica P, Cravana C, Fazio E. Endocrine changes after experimental showjumping. Comp Exerc Phys 2009, 6, 59-66. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1755254009990110
  8. Foreman JH, Ferlazzo A. Physiological responses to stress in the horse. Pferdeheilkunde 1996, 12, 401-404.
  9. Freestone JF, Wolfsheimer KJ, Kamerling SG, Church G, Hamra J, Bagwell C. Exercise induced hormonal and metabolic changes in Thoroughbred horses: effects of conditioning and acepromazine. Equine Vet J 1991, 23, 219-223. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1991.tb02760.x
  10. Gonzalez-de-la-Vara MdelR, Valdez RA, Lemus-Ramirez V, Vazquez-Chagoyan JC, Villa-Godoy A, Romano MC. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle. Can J Vet Res 2011, 75, 216-121.
  11. Gordon ME, McKeever KH, Betros CL, Manso Filho HC. Exercise-induced alterations in plasma concentrations of ghrelin, adiponectin, leptin, glucose, insulin, and cortisol in horses. Vet J 2007, 173, 532-540. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2006.01.003
  12. Hoffman-Goetz L, Thorne RJ, Houston ME. Splenic immune responses following treadmill exercise in mice. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1988, 66, 1415-1419. https://doi.org/10.1139/y88-230
  13. Johansson AM, Skidell J, Lilliehook I, Tvedten HW. Chronic granulocytic leukemia in a horse. J Vet Intern Med 2007, 21, 1126-1129. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2007.tb03076.x
  14. Larsson J, Pilborg PH, Johansen M, Christophersen MT, Holte A, Roepstorff L, Olsen LH, Harrison AP. Physiological parameters of endurance horses pre- compared to post-race, correlated with performance: a two race study from scandinavia. ISRN Vet Sci 2013, 2013, 684353.
  15. Lee WB, Kwon SH, Kim HM. Effect of hypoxia-ischemia on c-fos expression in the neonatal rat brain. Korean J Pediatr 2000, 43, 386-394.
  16. Linden A, Art T, Amory H, Desmecht D, Lekeux P. Effect of 5 different types of exercise, transportation and ACTH administration on plasma cortisol concentration in sport horses. In: Persson SGB, Lindholm A, Jeffcott LB (eds.). Equine Exercise Physiology 3. pp. 391-396, ICEEP publications, Davis, 1991.
  17. Malinowski K, Shock EJ, Rochelle P, Kearns CF, Guirnalda PD, McKeever KH. Plasma beta-endorphin, cortisol and immune responses to acute exercise are altered by age and exercise training in horses. Equine Vet J Suppl 2006, 36, 267-273.
  18. Marc M, Parvizi N, Ellendorff F, Kallweit E, Elsaesser F. Plasma cortisol and ACTH concentrations in the warmblood horse in response to a standardized treadmill exercise test as physiological markers for evaluation of training status. J Anim Sci 2000, 78, 1936-1946. https://doi.org/10.2527/2000.7871936x
  19. Marlin DJ, Fenn K, Smith N, Deaton CD, Roberts CA, Harris PA, Dunster C, Kelly FJ. Changes in circulatory antioxidant status in horses during prolonged exercise. J Nutr 2002, 132 (Suppl 2), 1622S-1627S. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/132.6.1622S
  20. McGivney BA, Eivers SS, MacHugh DE, MacLeod JN, O'Gorman GM, Park SDE, Katz LM, Hill EW. Transcriptional adaptations following exercise in thoroughbred horse skeletal muscle highlights molecular mechanisms that lead to muscle hypertrophy. BMC Genomics 2009, 10, 638. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-10-638
  21. McGivney BA, McGettigan PA, Browne JA, Evans AC, Fonseca RG, Loftus BJ, Lohan A, MacHugh DE, Murphy BA, Katz LM, Hill EW. Characterization of the equine skeletal muscle transcriptome identifies novel functional responses to exercise training. BMC Genomics 2010, 11, 398. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-11-398
  22. McGorum BC, Anderson RA. Biomarkers of exposure to cyanogens in horses with grass sickness. Vet Rec 2002, 151, 442-445. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.151.15.442
  23. Muller JM, Krauss B, Kaltschmidt C, Baeuerle PA, Rupec RA. Hypoxia induces c-fos transcription via a mitogenactivated protein kinase-dependent pathway. J Biol Chem 1997, 272, 23435-23439. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.272.37.23435
  24. Park KD, Park J, Ko J, Kim BC, Kim HS, Ahn K, Do KT, Choi H, Kim HM, Song S, Lee S, Jho S, Kong HS, Yang YM, Jhun BH, Kim C, Kim TH, Hwang S, Bhak J, Lee HK, Cho BW. Whole transcriptome analyses of six thoroughbred horses before and after exercise using RNASeq. BMC Genomics 2012, 13, 473. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-13-473
  25. Park W, Kim J, Kim HJ, Choi J, Park JW, Cho HW, Kim BW, Park MH, Shin TS, Cho SK, Park JK, Kim H, Hwang JY, Lee CK, Lee HK, Cho S, Cho BW. Investigation of de novo unique differentially expressed genes related to evolution in exercise response during domestication in thoroughbred race horses. PLoS One 2014, 9, e91418. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091418
  26. Peeling P, Dawson B, Goodman C, Landers G, Wiegerinck ET, Swinkels DW, Trinder D. Effects of exercise on hepcidin response and iron metabolism during recovery. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2009, 19, 583-597. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.19.6.583
  27. Piccione G, Giannetto G, Fazio F, Di Mauro S, Caola G. Haematological response to different workload in jumper horses. Bulgarian J Vet Med 2007, 10, 21-28.
  28. Poole DC, Erickson HH. Exercise physiology of terrestrial animals. In: Reece WO, Erickson HH, Goff JP, Uemura EE (eds.). Dukes' Physiology of Domestic Animals. 13th ed. pp. 443-466, Wiley-Blackwell, New Jersey, 2015.
  29. Segura D, Monreal L, Espada Y, Pastor J, Mayos I, Homedes J. Assessment of a platelet function analyser in horses: reference range and influence of a platelet aggregation inhibitor. Vet J 2005, 170, 108-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2004.05.013
  30. Sellon DC, Long MT. Epidemiology of equine infectious disease. In: Equine Infectious Diseases. 2nd ed. pp. 515-529, Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, 2014.
  31. Songer JG, Trinh HT, Dial SM, Brazier JS, Glock RD. Equine colitis X associated with infection by Clostridium difficile NAP1/027. J Vet Diagn Invest 2009, 21, 377-380. https://doi.org/10.1177/104063870902100314
  32. Veening JG, Bouwknecht JA, Joosten HJ, Dederen PJ, Zethof TJ, Groenink L, van der Gugten J, Olivier B. Stress-induced hyperthermia in the mouse: c-fos expression, corticosterone and temperature changes. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2004, 28, 699-707. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2004.05.007
  33. Wellhoener P, Born J, Fehm HL, Dodt C. Elevated resting and exercise-induced cortisol levels after mineralocorticoid receptor blockade with canrenoate in healthy humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004, 89, 5048-5052. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2004-0086

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 농림수산식품기술기획평가원