Cafeteria Users' Preference for an Indoor Green-wall in a University Dining Hall

실내 벽면녹화 공간 이용자 행태연구 - 대학구내식당 녹화 칸막이 선호를 중심으로 -

Kim, Hae-Ryung;Ahn, Tong-Mahn

  • Received : 2015.08.05
  • Accepted : 2015.11.20
  • Published : 2015.12.31


The objective of this research is to investigate the different aspects in which users positively identify with indoor green walls and the influences that it has on usage behaviors. Under the hypothesis that public space users prefer locations with green walls, the effect on their behavior was observed. After installing indoor green walls, behavioral observations and questionnaires were carried out to analyze green wall preferences. The observation experiment was carried out for a total of 8 days in order to see what influences the preferences for of indoor green walls had on usage behaviors and compare a control group with an experimental group that experienced a green wall. The usage time data were put into an SPSS statistics program and used to run an independent sample t-test. The questionnaire was carried out for two days from March 1st to 2nd 2014 after the observation was completed, and was done by 224 users of the two areas. The results from the experiment are as follows. First, comparisons between the total usage time of seats adjoined to partitions in both the green walled area and the partitioned area showed that there was no preference for indoor green walls. Second, the results appeared to show a higher percentage of women users in the green walled area, compared to the original partitioned area. Third, it showed that partitions and plants did not have any influence on seat choices. Fourth, the questionnaire showed preferences for indoor green walls. Out of the 94 people who sat in the partitioned area, 11.7% answered that they wanted to sit in the green walled area, they couldn't due to the lack of available seats. Furthermore, out of the 130 people who sat in the green walled area, 24.6% said they chose the seat because of their preference for the green wall. Although 64.3% of users of the two areas said that they would choose the green walled area if under the same circumstances, the behavior observation did not reflect this.


Segmental Detachable Green Wall;Usage Behavior;Non-participant Behavior Observation;Survey;Eating and Drinking Space;Preference Analysis


  1. Lee, K. H. and J. H. Yang(2004) A study on the influential factors of the user's behavior according to the spatial characteristics at the cafe. Architectural Research 20(8): 13-21.
  2. Lee, S. N.(2005) A Study on the Awareness of Residents on Wall Planting. Master Thesis, Hankyung National University. Gyeonggi, Korea.
  3. Lim, L. S., N. H. Byun, J. P. Choi and S. B. Im(2010) An analysis of the relationship between visual privacy and preference of seats of university library. Architectural Research 26(5): 139-146.
  4. Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs(2012) the Guideline for Building Greening design. Notification of Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs 2012-544.
  5. Ottele, M., K. Perini, A. L. A. Fraaij, E. M. Haas and R.. Raiteri(2011) Comparative life cycle analysis for green facades and living wall systems. Energy and Buildings 43(12): 3419-3429.
  6. Perez, G., L. Rincon, A. Vila, J. M. Gonzalez and L. F., Cabeza(2011a) Green vertical systems for buildings as passive systems for energy savings. Applied Energy 88(12): 4854-4859.
  7. Perez, G., L. Rincon, A. Vila, J. M. Gonzalez and L. F. Cabeza(2011b) Behaviour of green facades in mediterranean continental climate. Energy Conversion and Management 52(4): 1861-1867.
  8. Perini, K.(2013) Retrofitting with vegetation recent building heritage applying a design tool-the case study of a school building. Frontiers of Architectural Research 2(3): 267-277.
  9. Perini, K., M. Ottele, E. M. Haas and R. Raiteri(2013) Vertical greening systems, a process tree for green facades and living walls. Urban Ecosystems. pp. 1-13.
  10. Rasidi, M. H., N. Jamirsah and I. Said(2012) Urban green space design affects urban residents' social interaction. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 68: 464-480.
  11. Alves, S., P. A. Aspinall, C. W. Thompson, T. Sugiyama, R. Brice and A. Vickers(2008) Preferences of older people for environmental attributes of local parks: The use of choice-based conjoint analysis. Facilities 26(11/12): 433-453.
  12. Choi, H. H.(2013) Study on Characteristics of Common Use Space Panning according to Urban Entertainment Centers (U.E.C) Typology. Master Thesis, Chung-ang University. Seoul, Korea.
  13. Choi, I. A. and J. K. Lee(2013). A study on selection of plant of greening for indoor walls in commercial area. Journal of the Korean Society of Floral Art and Design 28(1): 167-180.
  14. Choi, S. R., Y. S. Kim and P. S. Yoon(2013). The management plan for the maintenance of the green-wall colors-Focusing on the eco plaza. Seoul Vertical Garden Proceedings of Korean Society of Color Studies Annual Conference. pp. 38-44.
  15. Eom, K. H.(2007). A Study on the Greening Walls in Interior Space: with Special Reference a Case Study the Information Booth for Multifunctional Administrative City. Master Thesis, Hanyang University. Seoul, Korea.
  16. Francis, R. A. and J. Lorimer(2011) Urban reconciliation ecology the potential of living roofs and walls. Journal of Environmental Management 92(6): 1429-1437.
  17. Han, S. H., S. H. Kim and K. S. Sung(2008) A study on the visual satisfaction of a panel-type facade planting. Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture 36(20): 53-59.
  18. Hindle, R. L.(2012) A vertical garden: Origins of the Vegetation-Bearing Architectonic Structure and System(1938). Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes 32(2): 99-110.
  19. Im, S. B.(2007) Environmental Psychology and Behavior: A Study of Human-Oriented Environment Planning. Seoul: Bo-moon-dang.
  20. Jim, C. Y. and H. He(2011) Estimating heat flux transmission of vertical greenery ecosystem. Ecological Engineering 37(8): 1112-1122.
  21. Kang, Y. E., Y. S. Shin, D. N. Jee, J. A. Kim and S. B. Im(2009) A study on the spatial model using participant observation: Focused on community facilities in rural villages. Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning 15(1): 31-46.
  22. Kim, B. J.(2004) A Study on Design Process for Public Space by User Behavioral Observation: Centered on a Waiting Room in a Station. Master Thesis, Kookmin University. Seoul, Korea.
  23. Kim, J. H.(2009) A Study on the Interior Landscape Design by Using Wall Greening. Master Thesis, Hongik University. Seoul, Korea.
  24. Kim, K. C. and B. J. Kim(2003) A study on design process for public space by users behavioral characteristics. Journal of Korean Society of Design Science 17(1): 89-98.
  25. Kim, Y.(2009). Sustainable architectural design of metropolitan vertical farm. International Journal of Contents 7(2): 181-186.
  26. Kohler, M.(2008) Green facades-a view back and some visions. Urban Ecosystems 11(4): 423-436.
  27. Lee, E. J. and K. R. Im(2005) Analysis on the programming of space design reflecting human behavior psychology. Journal of Digital Design 11: 222-231.
  28. Lee, H. M.(2001) The Development of Planning Method for Landscaping of Wall. Master Thesis, Hongik University. Seoul, Korea.
  29. Lee, J. H. and Y. S. Jang(2011) A study on the characteristic of indoor green-wall design: With focused on preference of emotional image language. Journal of Korean Society for Emotion and Sensibility 14(4): 593-604.
  30. Sheweka, S. M. and N. M. Mohamed(2012) Green facades as a new sustainable approach towards climate change. Energy Procedia 18: 507-520.
  31. Sim, W. S.(2003). A Study on the Relationship between Marketing Planning and Interior Design in the Spaces for Eating and Drinking. Master Thesis, Konkuk University. Seoul, Korea.
  32. Stec, W. J., A. H. C. Van Paassen and A. Maziarz(2005) Modelling the double skin facade with plants. Energy and Buildings 37(5): 419-427.
  33. Tong, J. andW. U. Yang(Eds.)(2013) LivingWall: Jungle the Concrete. Hong Kong: Design Media Publishing Limited.
  34. Tzoulas, K. and P. James(2010) Peoples' use of, and concerns about, green space networks: A case study of Birchwood, Warrington New Town, UK. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 9(2): 121-128.
  35. Uffelen, Chris van.(2011) Facade Greenery: Contemporary Landscaping. Germany: Braun Publishing AG.
  36. Unt, A. L. and S. Bell(2013) The impact of small-scale design interventions on the behaviour patterns of the users of an urban wasteland. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening. Article in press.
  37. Van Renterghem, T., M. Hornikx, J. Forssen and D. Botteldooren (2012) The potential of building envelope greening to achieve quietness. Building and Environment 61: 34-44.
  38. Wong, N. H., A. Y. K. Tan, P. Y. Tan, A. Sia and N. C. Wong(2010) Perception studies of vertical greenery systems in Singapore. Journal of Urban Planning and Development 136(4): 330-338.
  39. Wright Wendel, H. E., R. K. Zarger and J. R. Mihelcic(2012) Accessibility and usability: Green space preferences, perceptions, and barriers in a rapidly urbanizing city in Latin America. Landscape and Urban Planning 107(3): 272-282.
  40. Yang, B. E. and S. Y. Moon(2002). An analysis of the relationship of seating behavior with the space characteristics in fastfood restaurant. Architectural Research 18(9): 21-31.
  41. Yang, E. K., H. S. Suh and C. S. Tae(2010). The feasibility study on green wall in apartment complex planning. Proceedings of the SAREK 2010 Summer Annual Conference. pp. 356-361.
  42. Yang, S. Y. and S. I. Cho(2013). A study on the vertical garden design for indoor space : Focused on green wall in lobby space. Journal of the Korean Institution of Interior Design 22(3): 33-42.
  43. Yun, P. S.(1998). Environmental Horticulture Illustrated Plant Book. Seoul: Mun-un-dang.
  44. Zeng, Z., X. Li, C. Li and Y. Zhu(2012) Modeling ventilation in naturally ventilated double-skin facade with a venetian blind. Building and Environment 57: 1-6.