- Volume 18 Issue 6
The objectives of this study are to construct an ecoregion map and to extract ecological factors from each ecoregion to adapt FLR (Forest Landscape Restoration) of North Korea. An ecological map was constructed by PCA(Principal Component Analysis) and MGC(Multivatiate Geographical Clustering). An ANOVA test verified the differences among ecoregions, and post-hoc pair wise comparisons were performed to determine similarities between them. Factor analysis was conducted to extract ecoregional characteristics. Ecoregions were distributed into clusters reflecting differences of south and north and of east and west of their ecological factors. About 12% of land area in North Korea shared similar ecological factors with South Korea, but the remaining 88% was found to be ecologically different. The ANOVA test showed a p-value of 0.000, indicating significant differences between the regions. Post-hoc pair wise comparisons indicated statistically significant similarities in annual mean temperature between ecoregion D and G, precipitation seasonality between ecoregion H and O, and precipitation of the warmest quarter between ecoregion K and O. Because ecoregion A and N showed same in their soil water contents, they were assumed that the dense of forest cover in the Southern ecoregion A is similar to that in the Northern ecoregion N of Korean peninsular. Based on the results of this study, it is necessary to accommodate quantitative and spatial based planning, when South Korea aids forest restoration projects in North Korea. In addition, it is recommended for both South and North Korea to share on Forest Landscape Restoration methodologies with each other.
Ecological Restoration goal;Landscape Structure;Environmental asset;Ecological difference;Soil Water Contents
- Andrew, M. E. ․ T. A. Nelson ․ M. A. Wulder ․ G. W. Hobart ․ N. C. Coops and C. J. Q. Farmer. 2013. Ecosystem classifications based on summer and winter conditions, Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 185: 3057-3079. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-2773-z
- Auh TS and Choi HC. 2003. Quantitative Analysis of Social Sciences Data, NANAM Publishing house, Seoul. Korea
- Bailey, R. G. 2005. Identifying Ecoregion Boundaries, Environmental Management 34(1): s14-s26.
- Chen, L. ․ J. Wang ․ W. Wei ․ B. Fu and D. Wu. 2010. Effects of landscape restoration on soil water storage and water use in the Loess Platue Region, China. Forest Ecology and Management, 259: 1291-1298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.10.025
- Coops, N. C. ․ M. A. Wulder ․ D. C. Duro ․ T. Han and S. Berry. 2008. The development of a Canadian dynamic habitat index using multi-temporal satellite estimates of canopy light absorbance. Ecological Indicators, 8(5); 754-766. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2008.01.007
- Dudley, N. ․ J. Morrison. ․ J. Aronson and S. Mansourian. 2005. Why do We Need to consider Restoration in a Landscape Context? in Forest Restoration in Landscape: Beyond Planting Trees, Springer, London.
- Duro, D. C. ․ N. C. Coops ․ M. A. Wulder and T. Han. 2007. Development of a large area biodiversity monitoring system driven by remote sensing in Physical Geography, 31: 1-26.
- Fitterer, J. L. ․ T. A. Nelson ․ N. C. Coops and M. A. Wulder. 2012. Modelling the ecosystem indicators of British Columbia using Earth observation data and terrain indices, Ecological Indicators, 20: 151-162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2012.02.024
- Field, A. 2009. discovering Statistics using SPSS. Sage, London.
- Forman, R. T. T. and M. Gordron. 1986. Landscape Ecology. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
- Good, R. 1947. The Geography of Flowering Plants, Longman Green.
- Hagrove W. W. and F. M. Hoffman. 2005. Potential of Multivariate Quantitiative Methods for Delineation and Visualization of Ecoregions, Environmental Management 34(5): 1-21.
- IUCN, 2005. Restoring Forest Landscapes: An introduction to the art and science of forest landscape restoration. Technical Series 23.
- Kim, Y. M. 1990. Climatic classification of Korea by factor analysis, Geography 25(1): 49-56.
- Kim, W. J. 2004. Ecoregion classification in Korea based on analysis of geospatial variables, Doctoral thesis, Seoul National University.
- Kong, W. S. 1989. The biogeographic divisions of Korea and their species composition, Geography 40: 43-54.
- Kumar, L. ․ A. O. Skidmore. ․ K. B. Moodie and E. Knowles. 1997. Modeling topographic variation in solar radiation in a GIS environment. Int.J. Geogr. Inform. Sci. 11: 475-497. https://doi.org/10.1080/136588197242266
- Kumar, J. ․ R. T. Mills. ․ F. M. Hoffman and W. W. Hargrove. 2011. Parallel k-means clustering for quantitative ecoregion delineation using large data sets, Procedia Computer Science, 4: 1602-1611. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2011.04.173
- Loveland, T. R. and J. M. Merchant. 2004. Ecoregions and ecoregionalization: geographical and ecological perspectives, Environmental Management, 34(1): 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-003-5181-x
- Nakai, T. 1935. Notulae ad plantas Japoniae XXVI in Bot. Mag. Tokyo 36; 20-26.
- Newton, A. C. ․ R, F/ Castillo. C. Echeverria. ․ D. Geneletti. ․ Gonzalez-Espinosa. ․ L. A. Malizia. A. C. Premoli. ․ J. M. Rey Benayas. ․ C. Smith-Ramirez and G. Williams-Linera. 2012. Forest Landscape Restoration in the Drylands of Latin America. Ecology and society 17(1): 21
- Poulos, E. M. and A. Camp. 2010. Topographic influences on vegetation mosaics and tree diversity in the Chihuahuan Desert Borderlands. Ecology, 91(4): 1140-1151. https://doi.org/10.1890/08-1808.1
- Shin, J. H. and C. M. Kim. 1996. Ecosystem classification in Korea(I): Ecoprovince Classification. FRI. Journal of Forest Science (54): 188-199.
- Song, W. K. 2014. Suggestion of the relative elevation analysis methods for conservation of local topography: Focused on analysis range. J. Korean Env. Res. Tech. 17(5): 19-28.
- Tatsuhara, S. and Y. Antatsu. 2010. Predicting the spatial distribution of major species composition in secondary hardwood forests on Mt. Gozu, central Japan, based on environmental factors. J For Res(2010) 15: 347-357. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10310-010-0194-9
- Williams, C. L. ․ W. W. Hargrove. ․ M. Liebman and D. E. James. 2008. Agro-ecoregionalization of Iowa using multivariate geographical clustering, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 123: 161-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2007.06.006
- Yu, J. S. and J. M. Kim. 2015. Principal Component Analysis based Ecosystem Differences between South and North Korea using Multivariate Spatial Environmental Variables. J. Korean Env. Res. Tech., 18(4): 15-27.
- Zhou, P. ․ O. Luukkanen ․ T. Tokola and J. Nieminen. 2008. Vegetation Dynamics and Forest Landscape Restoration in the upper Min River Watershed, Sichuan, China. Restoration Ecology, 16(2): 348-358. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2007.00307.x
연구 과제 주관 기관 : 국립산림과학원