- Volume 25 Issue 4
Korea is one of the country with the world's oldest meteorological observation records. Starting with first meteorological record of fog in Goguryeo in the year of 34 BC, Korea had left a great deal of quantitative observation records, from the Three Kingdoms Period to Goryeo to Joseon. During the Joseon Dynasty, with a great attention by kings, efforts were particularly made to measure rainfall in a systematic and scientific manner. In the 23rd year of King Sejong (1441), the world's first rain gauge called "Chugugi" was invented; in the following year (1442), a nationwide rainfall observation network was established. The King Sejong distributed Chugugi to 350 observation stations throughout the state, even to small towns and villages, for measuring and recording rainfall. The rainfall observation using Chugugi, initiated by King Sejong, had been in place for about 150 years, but halted during national disturbances such as Japanese invasion of Korea in 1592. Since then, the observation had been forgotten for a long time until the rainfall observation by Chugugi was resumed in the 48th year of King Yeongjo (1770). King Yeongjo adopted most of the existing observation system established by King Sejong, including the size of Chugugi and observation rules. He, however, significantly reduced the number of Chugugi observation stations to 14, and commanded the 352 local authorities such as Bu, Gun, Hyeon to conduct "Wootaek", a method of measuring how far the moisture had absorbed into the soil when it rains. Later on, six more Chugugi stations were established. If the number of stations of Chugugi and Wootaek are combined together, the total number of rainfall observation station in the late period of Joseon Dynasty was 372. The rainfall observation with Chugugi during the Joseon Dynasty is of significance and excellence in three aspects: 1) the standard size of Chugugi was so scientifically designed that it is as great as today's modern rain gauge; 2) rainfall was precisely measured, even with unit of Bun (2 mm); and 3) the observation network was distributed on a nationwide basis.
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- Cho, H.-M., S.-W. Kim, J. Park, J.-A. Kim, and Y.-S. Chun, 2013: Restoration and Analysis of Chugugi Rainfall Data by Gaksadeungnok for Gyeonggi Province During the Latter Part of the Joseon Dynasty (1830-1893), Korea. Atmosphere, 23, 389-400. https://doi.org/10.14191/Atmos.2013.23.4.389
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- Kim, S.-W., J.-S. Park, J. A Kim, and Y. Hong, 2012: Restoration of 19th-century Chugugi Rainfall Data for Wonju, Hamheung and Haeju, Korea. Atmosphere, 22, 129-135. https://doi.org/10.14191/Atmos.2012.22.1.129
- Korea Meteorological Administration, 2013: Meteorological, Astronomical, and Seismological Observations from Ancient Korea, Korean Meteorological Archives Series No. 4, 137 pp.
- Korean Academy of Meteorology and Climate, 2010: A comprehensive planning study for the restoration of meteorology and climate in the Joseon Dynasty based on historical records, 551 pp.
- Korean Academy of Meteorology and Climate, 2011: Restoration of Chugugi rainfall data, Gangwon-do, Hwanghae-do, Hamgyeong-do, 654 pp.
- Korean Academy of Meteorology and Climate, 2012: Restoration of Gaksadeungnok rainfall data, Pyeongando, 797 pp.
- Korean Academy of Meteorology and Climate, 2013: Restoration of Chugugi rainfall data by Gaksadeungnok, Gyeongsang-do, 334 pp.
- Korean Academy of Meteorology and Climate, 2014: Restoration of Chugugi rainfall data by Gaksadeungnok, Jeolla-do, 293 pp.
- Lee, H.-S., 2012: A Challange of Joseon to Climate-The Chugugi. Sowadang, 310 pp.
- Wada, Y.-J., 1917: The report on the investigation into the record of the Joseon ancient meteorological observations. Meteorological observatory. the Japanese Government General of Korea, 200 pp.
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- Wang, B., J.-G. Jhun, and B.-K. Moon, 2007: Variability and Singularity of Seoul, South Korea, Rainy Season (1778-2004). J. Climate, 20, 2572-2580. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4123.1
연구 과제번호 : 조선시대 역사 기후자료 복원연구(I)