A Difference Analysis Among Nationality, Gender and Age Regarding Environmentally Conscious Behavior

친환경 행동에 대한 국가, 성별, 연령 차이분석

  • Received : 2014.11.06
  • Accepted : 2015.08.06
  • Published : 2015.08.31


The study seeks to determine how much environmentally conscious behaviors vary depending on the nationality, gender and age. For its purpose, this study suggests hypotheses that Korean and American consumers, who are culturally different from each other, show differences from each other in environmentally conscious behaviors. An interaction effect is also expected between gender and age. With regard to environmentally conscious behavior. Meanwhile, the study tried to examine whether personal values have any mediating effect on the behaviors. The findings of this study can be summarized as follows. Environmentally conscious behaviors by American consumers were more significant than those by Korean consumers. And men were more positive in making environmentally conscious behaviors than women were. In addition, there were interaction effects between nationality and gender, and nationality and age. Furthermore, personal values, depending on age, were found to have moderating effects on environmentally conscious behaviors.


Age;Environmentally Conscious Behavior;Gender;Nationality


  1. J. Burger, J. Sanchez, J. Gibbons, M. Gochfeld, "Gender Differences in Recreational Use, Environmental Attitudes, and Perceptions of Future Land Use at Savannah Fiver Site," Environment and Behavior, Vol. 30(4), pp.472-486, 1998. DOI:
  2. P. W. Schultz, L. Zelezny, "Values as Predictors of Environmental Attitudes: Evidence for Conservation Behavior, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 36, pp.457-475, 1998. DOI:
  3. G. Shruti, D. T. Ogden, "To buy or not to buy? A Social Dilemma Perspective on Green Buying," Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vo. 26(6), pp.376-391. 1984.
  4. D. J. Davidson, W. R. Freudenburg, "Gender and Environmental Risk Concerns: A Review and Analysis of Available Research," Environment and Behavior, Vol. 28(3), pp.302-329, 1996. DOI:
  5. A. Ewert, D. Baker, "Standing for Where You Sit: An Exploratory Analysis of the Relationship between Academic major and Environment Beliefs," Environment and Behavior, Vol. 33(5), pp. 687-707, 2001. DOI:
  6. A. Furman, "A Note on Environmental Concern is a Developing Country Results From an Istanbul Survey", Environmental and Behavior, Vol. 30(4), pp.520-534, 1998. DOI:
  7. P. W. Schultz, "Empathizing with Nature: The Effects of Perspective Taking on Concern for Environmental Issues," The Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 56(3), pp. 392-406, 2000. DOI:
  8. J. H. Antil, "Socially Responsible Consumers: Profile and Implications for Public Policy," Journal of Macromarketing, fall, pp. 18-39, 1984.
  9. L. Van, D. Kent, R. E. Dunlap, "The Social Base of Environmental Concern: A Review of Hypotheses Explanation and Practical Evidence." Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 44(2), pp. 181-197, 1980. DOI:
  10. L. C. Leonidou, C. N. Leonidou, O. Kvasova, "Antecedents and outcomes of consumer environmentally-friendly attitudes and behaviour", Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 26. pp. 1319-1344, 2010. DOI:
  11. S. W. Yoon, Y. J. Yang, "Analysis of the Difference in Environment-Friendly Behavior based on List of Value," Journal of Marketing Management Research, Vol. 14(2), pp. 103-122, 2009.
  12. S. W. Yoon, Y. J. Yang, J. K. Nor, J. O. Jeon, "Effects of Environmental Knowledge on Environmentally Conscious Consumer Behavior," Journal of Marketing Management Research, Vol. 11(3), pp. 131-147, 2006.
  13. S. S. Lee, "A Study on Consumers' Demand for Environmentally Sustainable Home Electrical Goods," Family and Environment Research, Vol. 42(2), pp. 19-31, 2004.
  14. H. J. Bak., J. Y. Huh, "Structure and Determinants of Pro-environmental Behavior: the Effect of Environmental Consciousness and Multi-dimensionality of Pro-environmental Behavior", Korea Environmental Policy and Administration Society, Vol. 18(1). pp.1-26. 2010.
  15. G. H. Hofstede, "Culture's Consequence: International Differences in Work-Related Values, Sage Publications, Boston, MA, 1980.
  16. G. H. Hofstede, "Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations across Nations," Thousand Osks, CA:Sage, 2001.
  17. A. B. Monga, D. R. John, "Cultural differences in brand extension evaluation: The influence of analytic versus holistic thinking," Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 33(March), pp. 529-536, 2007. DOI:
  18. R. E. Nisbett, K. Peng, I. Choi, A. Norenzayan, "Culture and systems of thought: Holistic versus analytic cognition," Psychological Review, Vol. 108(2), pp. 291-310, 2001. DOI:
  19. G. C. Onwezena, J. Bartelsc and G. Antonides, "Environmentally friendly consumer choices: Cultural differences in the self-regulatory function of anticipated pride and guilt," Journal of Environmental Psychology, Vol. 40(December), pp. 239-248, 2014. DOI:
  20. K. Soyez, "How national cultural values affect proenvironmental consumer behavior", International Marketing Review, Vol. 29(6), pp.623-646, 2012. DOI:
  21. J. Pryzgoda, J. C. Chrisler, "Definitions of Gender and Sex: The Subtleties of Meaning", Sex Roles, Vol. 43(7-8), pp. 553-569, 2000.
  22. L. C. Zelezny, P. P. Chua, C. Aldrich, "Elaborating on gender differences is environmentalism", J.Soc, Vol. 56(3), pp. 443-457, 2000.
  23. A. Diamantopoulos, B. B. Schlegelmilch, R. R. Sinkovics, G. B. Bohlen, "Can Socio-demographics still play a role in Profiling Green Consumers? A review of the Evidence and an Empirical Investigation", Journal of Business Research, Vol. 56, pp. 465-480, 2003. DOI:
  24. J. Schanhn, E. Holzer, "Studies of individual environmental concern: the role of knowledge, gender and background variables", Environment Behaviour, Vol. 22(6), pp. 767-786, 1990. DOI:
  25. K. M. Palan, "Gender Identity in Consumer Behavior Research: A Literature Review and Research Agenda", Academy of Marketing Science Review, Vol. 10, 2001.
  26. J. T. Spence, "Gender-Related Traits and Gender Ideology: Evidence for a Multifactorial Theory", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 64(4), pp. 624-635, 1993. DOI:
  27. A. R. Koh, M. W. Nam, Y. J. Cho, "A Study on Apparel Benefits and Buying Behavior according to Values and Lifestyles," Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association, Vol. 40(5), pp.119-132, 2002
  28. P. O. D. Valle, R. E. Reis, J. Menezes and E. Rebelo, "Behavioral Determinants of Household Recycling Participation: The portuguese Case," Environment and Behavior, Vol.36(4), pp.505-540, 2004. DOI:
  29. S. M. Burgess, R. D. Blackwell, "Attractiveness, Values and Evaluations of Non-Celebrities in Print Ads: An Exploratory Study," S. Afr. J. Bus. Manage, Vol. 32(2), pp. 9-22, 2001.
  30. H. S. Sung, S. L. Han, "A Study on Perceived Quality Affecting the Service Personal Value: Focusing on the Moderating Effect of Need For Cognition(NFC) and Need For Touch(NFT)," Journal of Consumer Studies, Vol. 20(3), pp.163-188, 2009.
  31. D. M. Koo, "Influences of Social, Personal Norms and Perceived Importance of Consequences of Behaviors on Pro-Environmental Product Purchase and Recycling Behaviors," Asia Marketing Journal, Vol. 2(2), pp. 86-113, 2000.
  32. L. R. Kahle, Social Values and Social Change: Adaptation to Life in America, NY: Praeger Publishers, 1983
  33. L. R. Kahle, S. E. Beatty and P. Homer, "Alternative Measurement Approaches to Consumer Values: The List of Values(LOV) and Values and Life Style(VALS)," Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 13(3), pp. 405-409, 1986. DOI:
  34. A. P. Minton and R. L. Rose, "The Effects of Environmental Concern of Environmentally Friendly Consumer Behavior: An Exploratory Study," Journal of Business Research, Vol. 40(1), pp. 37-48, 1997. DOI:
  35. R. P. Bagozzi, "Structural Equation Models in Marketing Research: Basic Principle," in Principles of Marketing Research, Richard P. Bagozzi, ed. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, pp. 317-385, 1994.

Cited by

  1. The effect of eco-friendly behaviors and attitudes on behaviors of clothing recycling vol.24, pp.3, 2016,


Supported by : 동아대학교