Structural Relationships Among the Epistemological Beliefs, Metacognition, Science Inquiry Skills, and Science Achievement of High School Students

고등학생의 인식론적 신념, 메타인지 및 과학 탐구 능력과 과학 학업성취도의 구조적 관계 분석

  • Received : 2015.08.25
  • Accepted : 2015.11.13
  • Published : 2015.12.31


In the study, epistemological beliefs, metacognition, and scientific inquiry skills all directly affected the science academic achievement levels of high school students. Also, epistemological beliefs indirectly affected science academic achievement mediated by scientific inquiry skills and metacognition, while metacognition had an indirect effect on science academic achievement level mediated by scientific inquiry skills. We found that scientific inquiry skills had the biggest direct effect, while epistemological beliefs showed the most robust indirect effect on academic achievement level. Thus, we argue that students' scientific inquiry skills should be nurtured for the advancement of their academic achievement. In addition, more careful scholarly attention must be given to both epistemological beliefs and metacognition, which directly and indirectly affected academic achievement level. We believe that epistemological beliefs, metacognition, and scientific inquiry skills should all be considered in an integrative manner when developing educational programs and strategies.


epistemological beliefs;metacognition;science inquiry skills;science achievment


  1. Baird, Fensham, Gunstone & White. (1991). The importance of reflection in improving science teaching and learning. Journal of research in science teaching, 28(2), 163-182.
  2. Bayat, S., & Tarmizi, R. A. (2010). Accessing cognitive and metacognitive strategies during algebra problem solving among university students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 8, 403-410.
  3. Bloom, B. S. (1976). Human characteristics and school learning. New York, NY: Mcgraw- Hill.
  4. Brown, A. L. (1987). Metacognition, executive control, self-regulation and other more mysterious mechanism. In F. E. Weinert & R. H. Kluwe (Eds.), Metacognition, motivation, and understanding, Hillside, NY. : L. Erlbaum Associates, 65-116.
  5. Burns, J. C., Okey, J. R., & Wise, K. C. (1985). Development of an Integrated Process Skills Test: TIPS II. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 22(2), 169-177.
  6. Cooper, M. M., Sandi-Urena, S., & Stevens, R. (2008). Reliable multi method assessment of metacognition use in chemistry problem solving. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 9, 18-24.
  7. Costa, A. L., (1984). Mediating the metacognitive. Educational Leadership, 42, 57-62.
  8. Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. Resnick(Ed.), The nature of intelligence. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  9. Glynn, S. M. Brickman, P. Armstrong, N., & Taasoobshirazi, G. (2011). Science motivation questionnaire II: Validation with science majors and nonscience majors. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(10), 1159-1176.
  10. Hofer, B. & Pintrich, P. R. (1997). The development of epistemological theories; Beliefs about knowledge and knowing and their relation to learning. Review of Educational Research, 67, 88-140.
  11. Hofer, B. K. (2004). Epistemological understanding as a metacognitive process: Thinking aloud during online searching. Educational Psychologist. 39, 43-55.
  12. Hong, M., Jeong, E., Lee, M., & Kwak, Y. (2006). Analysis of korean middle school student science achievement at international benchmarks in TIMSS 2003. Journal of the Korean Association for Science Education, 26(2), 246-257.
  13. Jehng, J. J. (1991). The nature of epistemological beliefs about learning. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. University of Illinois, Urbana- Champaign.
  14. Jehng, J. J., Johnson, S. D., & Anderson, R. C. (1993). Schooling and student's epistemological beliefs about learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 18, 23-35.
  15. Jeon, S., & Park, J. (2014). Analysis of relationships of scientific communication skills, science process skills, logical thinking skills, and academic achievement level of elementary school students. Journal of the Korean Association for Science Education, 34(7), 647-655.
  16. Jeong, H., & Han, Y. (2003). The effects metacognitive learning strategies on achievement of elementary school students. Journal of Science educational research, 28, 57-68.
  17. Kang, M., Kim, J., Yoo, E., Park, Y., & Cho, S. (2012). Investigating the structural relationship of self-regulated learning skills, cognitive presence, science process skills, and science learning achievement when using WISE. Korean journal of educational research, 16(2), 481-498.
  18. Kim, S. (1996). A study of causal relationship on science process skills and student's characteristics by covariance structure analysis. Korea National University.
  19. Kim, S., & Seo, H. (2011). Self-regulated learning ability related to science inquiry skill and affective domain of science in middle school. Journal of Science Education, 35(2), 307-323.
  20. Kline, R. B. (2011). Principle and practice of structural equation modeling(3rd ed). The Guilford Press.
  21. Kwon, J., & Kim, B. (1994). The development of an instrument for the measurement of science process skills of the korean elementary and middle school students. Journal of the Korean Association for Research in Science Education. 14(3), 251-264.
  22. Lee, J. (2010). Analysis of the structural relationships among self-determination motivation to learn, metacognition, self-directed learning ability, learning flow, and school achievement. Korean journal of educational research, 48(2), 67-92.
  23. Lee, J., & Kim, B. (1996). Structural analysis among science achievement, science process skills and affective perception toward science of high school students. Journal of the Korean Association for Science Education, 16(3), 249-259.
  24. Ministry of Education and Science Technology (MEST). (2011). Science curriculum. Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development Bulletin 2011-361.
  25. Moon, S. (2009). Basic concepts and applications structural equation modeling. Seoul: Hakjisa Publication Co.
  26. Muis, K, R. (2007). Epistemic profiles and self-regulated learning: Examing relations in the context of mathematics problem solving. Contemporary Educational Psychology 32, 415-449.
  27. Mun, B., & Koh, J. (2009). A structural analysis of epistemic beliefs, self-regulated learning and academic achievement. The Korean Journal of Educational Psychology. 23(3), 581-599.
  28. Pintrich, P. R. & De Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self - regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 33-40.
  29. Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. J. (1991). A manual for the use of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire(MSLQ). National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.
  30. Plants, R. T. (2000). The relationship of motivation and metacognition to academic performance in graduate medical education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Memphis.
  31. Reynold, A. J., & Walberg H. J. (1991). A structural model of science achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(1), 97-107.
  32. Ryu, C. (2010). The structural relationship among learner variables affecting the science achievement of high school students. Chungbuk National University.
  33. Schommer, M. (1990). Effects of beliefs about the nature of knowledge on comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 498-504.
  34. Schommer, M. (1994b). Synthesizing epistemological beliefs research: tentative understandings and provocative confusions. Educational Psychology Review, 6(4), 293-319.
  35. Schommer, M. (1998). The influence of age and schooling on epistemological beliefs. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 68, 551-562.
  36. Songer, N. B., & Linn, M. C. (1991). How do students' views of science influence knowledge integration?. Journal of research in science teaching, 28(9), 761-784.
  37. Spiro, R. J., Coulson, R. L., Feltovich, P. J., & Anderson, D. K. (1988). "Cognitive flexibility theory : Advanced knowledge acquisition in ill-structured domains." In V. Patel and G. Groen. eds. Tenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum. 375-383.
  38. Zimmerman, B. J., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1986). Development of a structured interview for assessing student use of self-regulated learning strategies. American Educational Research Journal, 23(4), 614-628.
  39. Woo, J., Kim, B., Hur, M., Kim, C., Yang, I., Choi, K., & Kim, T. (1999). A longitudinal trend analysis of science process skills. Journal of the Korean Association for Science Education, 19(2), 173-184.