- Volume 29 Issue 4
This paper presents the results of an investigation into the frequency-dependent electrical parameters for different types of soil as a function of moisture content. The frequency dependence of soil electrical parameters is very important in the design of grounding systems. In fact, the performance of grounding systems is greatly dependent upon various factors such as soil type, particle size, water content, temperature, frequency, and the like. The resistivity and relative permittivity for four different soils were measured and analyzed in the frequency range of 1kHz - 1MHz. Soil resistivity declined as moisture content and frequency increased. In particular, the frequency dependence of soil resistivity was significant as the moisture content was low. In contrast, the relative permittivity of soil dramatically declined at the frequency of 10kHz or below as the moisture content increased, showing the opposite pattern in terms of variation patterns, compared to resistivity.
Soil;Resistivity;Permittivity;Frequency-Dependent Soil Parameter;Grounding System
- B. H. Lee, S. C. Lee, The Major Foundational Technics for Grounding Systems, Uije Publication Ltd., pp. 37-51, 1999.
- A. Phillips, Guide for Transmission Line Grounding: A Roadmap for Design, Testing, and Remediation: Part 1 - Theory Book, EPRI, pp.4-1-13, 2006.
- IEEE Std 80-2000, "IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding", pp.71-80, 2000.
- IEEE Std 142-2007, "IEEE Recommended Practice for Grounding of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems", IEEE Green Book, pp.161-181, 2007.
- C. H. Choi, B. H. Lee and S. K. Paek, "Frequency-dependent grounding impedance of the counterpoise based on the dispersed currents", Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology, Vol. 7, No.4, pp.589-596, 2012. https://doi.org/10.5370/JEET.2012.7.4.589
- C. H. Choi and B. H. Lee, "An analysis on the Frequency-dependent grounding impedance based on the ground current dissipation of counterpoises in the two-layered soils", Journal of Electrostatics, Vol. 70, Iss. 2, pp.184-191, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elstat.2011.12.003
- C. H. Choi and B. H. Lee, "An analysis of conventional grounding impedance based on the impulsive current distribution of a horizontal electrode", EPSR, Vol.85, pp.30-37, 2012.
- N. Mohamad Nor, A. Haddad, and H. Griffiths, "Performance of Earthing Systems of Low Reistivity Soils", IEEE Trans. PD, Vol.21, No.4, pp.2039-2047, 2006.
- S. Sekioka, M. I. Lorentzou, M. P. Philippakou, and J. M. Prousalidis, "Current-Dependent Grounding Resistance Model Based on Energy Balance of Soil Ionization", IEEE Trans. PD, Vol.21, No.1, pp.194-201, Jan. 2006.
- R. Alipio, S. Visacro, "Frequency Dependence of Soil Parameters: Effect on the Lightning Response of Grounding Electrodes", IEEE Trans. EMC, Vol.55, No.1, pp.132-139, 2013.
- Z. Song, M. R. Raghuveer, J. He, "Model for prediction of characteristics of lightning breakdown channels in soil in the presence of a buried cable", IEE Proc. -Genere. Transm. Distrib., Vol.150, No.5, pp.623-628, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-gtd:20030580
- M. Akbari, K. Sheshyekani, M. R. Alemi, "The Effect of Frequency Dependence of Soil Electrical Parameters on the Lightning Performance of Grounding Systems," IEEE Trans. EMC, Vol.55, No.4, pp.739-746, 2013.
- B. H. Lee and K. B. Kim, "Frequency-dependent electrical parameters of soils as a function of the moisture content", J. Korean Institute of Illuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers (KIIEE), Vol.28, No.6, pp.68-74, 2014.
- ASTM, "Standard Test Method for Field Measurement of Soil Resistivity Using the Wenner Four-Electrode Method", G 57-95a, pp.1-5, 2001.
- KS C IEC 62561-7, Lightning protection system components (LPSC) - Part 7: Requirements for earthing enchancing compounds, Ed. 1.0, pp.6-8, 2013.
- J. H. Choi, E. S. Cha, B. H. Lee, "Frequency-Dependent Resistivity and Relative Dielectric Constant of Soil on Water Content", J. KIIEE, Vol.24, No.1, pp.96-104, 2010.
- S. Visacro, R. Alipio, M. H. Murta, C. Pereira, "The Response of Grounding Electrodes to Lightning Currents: The Effect of Frequency Dependence Soil Resistivity and Permittivity", IEEE Trans. EMC, Vol.53, No.2, pp.401-406, 2011.
- K. B. Kim, B. H. Lee, H. K. Shin, Y. W. Yoo, "A Study on the Frequency Dependence of Electrical Parameters of Soil", Proc. 2014 Annual Conference of the Institute of Electrical Installation Engineers of Japan, pp.497-498, 2014.
- S. Visacro, R. Alipio, "Frequency Dependence of Soil Parameters: Experimental Results, Predicting Formula and Influence on the Lightning Response of Grounding Electrodes", IEEE Trans. PD, Vol.27, No.2, pp.927-935, 2012.