Effect of LED mixed light conditions on the glucosinolate pathway in brassica rapa

배추 유묘의 글루코시놀레이트 합성 기작에 미치는 LED 혼합광의 효과

  • Moon, Junghyun (Functional Biomaterial Division, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Jeong, Mi Jeong (Functional Biomaterial Division, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Lee, Soo In (Functional Biomaterial Division, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Lee, Jun Gu (Department of Horticulture, Chonbuk National University) ;
  • Hwang, Hyunseung (Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University) ;
  • Yu, Jaewoong (Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Konkuk University) ;
  • Kim, Yong-Rok (Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University) ;
  • Park, Se Won (Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Konkuk University) ;
  • Kim, Jin A (Functional Biomaterial Division, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration)
  • 문정현 (농촌진흥청 국립농업과학원 생물소재공학과) ;
  • 정미정 (농촌진흥청 국립농업과학원 생물소재공학과) ;
  • 이수인 (농촌진흥청 국립농업과학원 생물소재공학과) ;
  • 이준구 (전북대학교 농업생명과학대학) ;
  • 황현승 (서울대학교 식물생산과학부) ;
  • 유재웅 (건국대학교 분자생명공학과) ;
  • 김용록 (연세대학교 이과대학 화학과) ;
  • 박세원 (건국대학교 분자생명공학과) ;
  • 김진아 (농촌진흥청 국립농업과학원 생물소재공학과)
  • Received : 2015.06.09
  • Accepted : 2015.08.05
  • Published : 2015.09.30


In the agricultural industries, LEDs are used as supplementary, as well as main lighting sources in closed cultivation systems. In cultivation using artificial light sources, various light qualities have been tried to supplement fluorescent lamps to promote plant growth and metabolism. Microarray analysis of Brassica rapa seedlings under blue and fluorescent mixed with blue light conditions identified changes in three genes of the glucosinolate pathway. This attracted attention as functional materials highly expressed 3.6-4.6 fold under latter condition. We selected four more genes of the glucosinolate pathway from the Brassica database and tested their expression changes under fluorescent light mixed with red, green, and blue, respectively. Some genes increased expression under red and blue mixed conditions. The Bra026058, Bra015379, and Bra021429; the orthologous genes of CYP79F1, ST5a, and FMOGS-OX1 in Arabidopsis, are highly expressed in Brassica rapa under fluorescent mixed with blue light conditions. Further, Bra029355, Bra034180, Bra024634, and Bra022448; the orthologous genes of MAM1, AOP3, UGT74B1, and BCAT4 in Arabidopsis, are highly expressed in Brassica rapa under fluorescent mixed with red light conditions. The various light conditions had unique effects on the varieties of Brassica, resulting in differences in glucosinolate synthesis. However, in some varieties, glucosinolate synthesis increased under mixed blue light conditions. These results will help to construct artificial light facilities, which increase functional crops production.


Blue light;Brassica rapa;Glucosinolate;LED;Microarray


Supported by : 국립농업과학원


  1. Zeeberg BR, Feng W, Wang G, Wang MD, Fojo AT, Sunshine M, Narasimhan S, Kane DW, Reinhold WC, Lababidi S, Bussey KJ, Riss J, Barrett JC, Weinstein JN (2003) GoMiner: a resource for biological interpretation of genomic and proteomic data. Genome Biol 4:R28
  2. An CG, Hwang YH, An JU, Yoon HS, Chang YH, Shon GM, Hwang SJ (2011) Effect of LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) irradiation on growth of paprika (Capsicum annuum 'Cupra'). J Bio-Env Cont 20:253-257
  3. Ashburner M, Ball CA, Blake JA, Botstein D, Butler H, Cherry JM, Davis AP, Dolinski K, Dwight SS, Eppig JT, Harris MA, Hill DP, Issel-Tarver L, Kasarskis A, Lewis S, Matese JC, Richardson JE, Ringwald M, Rubin GM, Sherlock G (2000) Gene ontology: tool for the unification of biology. The Gene Ontology Consortium. Nat Genet 25:25-29
  4. Awad MA, Wagenmakers PS, Jager AD (2001) Effects of light on flavonoid and chlorogenic acid levels in the skin of 'Jonagold' apples. Sci Hort 88:289-298
  5. Brew CT, Aronchik I, Kosco K, McCammon J, Bjeldanes LF, Firestone GL (2009) Indole-3-carbinol inhibits MDA-MB- 231 breast cancer cell motility and induces stress fibers and focal adhesion formation by activation of Rho kinase activity. Int J Cancer 124:2294-2302
  6. Butler WL, Siegelman HW, Miller CO (1964) Denaturation of phytochrome. Biochem 3:851-857
  7. Cha YS, Oh SH (2000) Investigation of gamma-aminobutyric acid in Chinese cabbage and effects of the cabbage diets on lipid metabolism and liver function of rats administered with ethanol. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 29:500-505
  8. Cho JA, Son DM, Kim JM, Seo BS, Yan SY, Kim BW, Heo BG (2008) Effects of LEDs on the germination, growth and physiological activities of amaranth sprouts. Kor J Hort Sci Technol 26:106-112
  9. Choi MK, Baek GY, Kwon SJ, Yoon YC, Kim HT (2014) Effect of LED light wavelength on lettuce growth, vitamin C and anthocyanin contents. Protected Hort and Plant Factory 23:19-25
  10. Du Z, Zhou X, Ling Y, Zhang Z, Su Z (2010) agriGO: a GO analysis toolkit for the agricultural community. Nucleic Acids Res 38:W64-W70
  11. Ebisawa M, Shoji K, Kato M, Shimomura K, Goto F, Yoshihara T (2008) Supplementary ultraviolet radiation B together with blue light at night increased quercetin content and flavonol synthase gene expression in leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Environ Control Biol 46:1-11
  12. Faulkner K, Mithen R, Williamson G (1998) Selective increase of the potential anticarcinogen 4-methylsulphinylbutyl glucosinolate in broccoli. Carcinogenesis 19:605-609
  13. Halliwell B (1997) Antioxidants: the basics-what they are and how to evaluate them. Adv Pharmacol 38:3-20
  14. Hangarter RP (1997) Gravity, light and plant form. Plant Cell Environ 20:796-800
  15. Heo JW, Lee YB, Kim DE, Chang YS, Chun C (2010) Effects of supplementary LED lighting on growth and biochemical parameters in Dieffenbachia amoena 'Camella' and Ficus elastica 'Melany'. Kor J Hort Sci Technol 28:51-58
  16. Huseby S, Koprivova A, Lee BR, Saha S, Mithen R, Wold AB, Bengtsson GB, Kopriva S (2013) Diurnal and light regulation of sulphur assimilation and glucosinolate biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot 64:1039-1048
  17. Hwang MK, Huh CS, Seo YJ (2004) Optic characteristics comparison and anlaysis of SMD type Y/G/W HB LED. J Kor Ins Illumin Electric Install Eng 18:51-21
  18. Irizarry RA, Bolstad BM, Collin F, Cope LM, Hobbs B, Speed TP (2003) Summaries of Affimetrix GeneChip probe level data. Nucleic Acids Res 31:e15
  19. Johkan M, Shoji K, Goto F, Hashida S, Yoshihara T (2010) Blue light-emitting diode light irradiation of seedlings improves seedling quality and growth after transplanting in red leaf lettuce. Hortscience 45:1809-1814
  20. Kim JA, Kim JS, Hong JK, Lee YH, Choi BS, Seol YJ, Jeon CH (2012) Comparative mapping, genomic structure, and expression analysis of eight pseudo-response regulator genes in Brassica rapa. Mol Genet Genomics 287:373-388
  21. Kim JA, Lee YH, Hong JK, Hong SC, Lee SI, Choi SG, Moon YS, Koo BS (2013) Effects of light quality using LEDs on expression patterns in Brassica rapa seedlings. Kor J Hort Sci Technol 31:607-616
  22. Kim JK, Chu SM, Kim SJ, Lee DJ, Lee SY, Lim SH, Ha SH, Kweon SJ, Cho HS (2010) Variation of glucosinolates in vegetable crops of Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis. Food Chem 119:423-428
  23. Kim JW (2010) Trend and direction for plan factory system. J Plant Biotechnol 37:442-455
  24. Kim MR (2004) Bioactivities of sulfur compounds in cruciferous vegetables. 2004 Annual meeting and international symposium on the current prospects of functional and medical food. Jeju. The Korean Society of FSN. p.150-157
  25. Klein RM (1979) Reversible effect of green and orange-red radiation on plant cell elongation. Plant Physiol 63:114-116
  26. Kojima M, Nakano Y, Fujii H (2010) Light stimulation triggered expression of genes coding for vacuolar proton-pump enzymes V-ATPase and V-PPase in buckwheat. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 74:1507-1511
  27. Kopsell DA, Kopsell DE (2008) Genetic and environmental factors affecting plant lutein/zeaxanthin. Agro Food Ind Hi-Tech 19:44-46
  28. Lee JJ, Lee YM, Shin HD, Jeong YS, Lee MY (2007) Effects of vegetable sprout power mixture on lipid metabolism in rats fed high fat diet. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 36:965-974
  29. Lee NY, Lee MJ, Kim YK, Park JC, Park HK, Choi JS, Hyun JN, Kim KJ, Park KH, Ko JK, Kim JG (2010) Effect of light emitting diode radiation on antioxidant activity of barley leaf. J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 53:685-690
  30. Lund EK, Smith TK, Clarke RG, Johnson IT (2001) Cell death in the colorectal cancer cell line HT29 in response to glucosinolate metabolites. J Sci Food Agric 81:959-961
  31. Lund JB, Blom TJ, Aaslyng JM (2007) End-of-day lighting with different red/far-red ratios using light-emitting diodes affects plant growth of Chrysanthemum $\times$ morifolium Ramat. 'Coral Charm'. HortScience 24:1609-1611
  32. Mun JH, Kim JA, Park SW(2014) Effect of light quality on the glucosinolate pathway in Brassica rapa seedling. Konkuk University master's thesis.
  33. Nagaharu U (1935) Genome analysis in Brassica with special reference to the experimental formation of B. napus and peculiar mode of fertilization. Japan J Bot 7:389-452
  34. Okamoto K, Yanagi T, Takita S, Tanaka M, Higuchi T, Ushida Y, Watanabe T (1996) Development of plant growth apparatus using blue and red LED as artificial light source. Acta Hort 440:111-116
  35. Osawa T, Katsuzaki H, Hagiwara H, Hagiwara H, Shibamoto T (1992) A novel antioxidant isolated from young green barley leaves. J Agric Food Chem 40:1135-1138
  36. Padilla G, Cartea M, Velasco P, de Haro A, Ordas A (2007) Variation of glucosinolates in vegetable crops of Brassica rapa. Phytochem 68:4536-4545
  37. Pedras MSC, Sarwar MG, Suchy M, Adio AM (2006) The phytoalexins from cauliflower, caulilexins A, B and C: Isolation, structure determination, synthesis and antifungal activity. Phytochem 67:1503-1509
  38. Redovnikovic, IR, Glivetic, T, Delonga, K, Vorkapic-Furac, J (2008) Glucosinolates and their potential role in plant. Periodicum Biologorum. 110: 297-309
  39. Shiga T, Shoji K, Shimada H, Hashida S, Goto F, Yoshihara T (2009) Effect of light quality on rosmarinic acid content and antioxidant activity of sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Plant Biotechnol 26:255-259
  40. Smyth GK (2004) Linear models and empirical bayes methods for assessing differential expression in microarray experiments. Stat Appl Genet Mol Biol 3:1-25
  41. Urbonaviciute A, Samuoliene G, Sakalauskiene S, Brazaityte A, Jankauskiene J, Duchovskis P, Ruzgas V, Stonkus A, Vitta P, Zukauskas A, and Tamulaitis G (2009) Effect of flashing amber light on the nutritional quality of green sprouts. Agronomy Res 7:761-767
  42. Wang X, Wang H, Wang J, Sun R, Wu J, Liu S, Bai Y, Mun JH, Bancroft I, Cheong F, Huang S, Li X, Hua W, Wang J, Wang X, Freeling M, Pires JC, Paterson AH, Chalhoub B, Wang B, Hayward A, Sharpe AG, Park BS, Weisshaar B, Liu B, Li B, Liu B, Tong C, Song C, Duran C, Peng C, Geng C, Koh C, Lin C, Edwards D, Mu D, Shen D, Soumpourou E, Li F, Fraser F, Conant G, Lassalle G, King GJ, Bonnema G, Tang H, Wang H, Belcram H, Zhou H, Hirakawa H, Abe H, Guo H, Wang H, Jin H, Parkin IA, Batley J, Kim JS, Just J, Li J, Xu J, Deng J, Kim JA, Li J, Yu J, Meng J, Wang J, Min J, Poulain J, Wang J, Hatakeyama K, Wu K, Wang L, Fang L, Trick M, Links MG, Zhao M, Jin M, Ramchiary N, Drou N, Berkman PJ, Cai Q, Huang Q, Li R, Tabata S, Cheong S, Zhang S, Zhang S, Huang S, Sato S, Sun S, Kwon SJ, Choi SR, Lee TH, Fan W, Zhao X, Tan X, Xu X, Wang Y, Qiu Y, Yin Y, Li Y, Du Y, Liao Y, Lim Y, Narusaka Y, Wang Y, Wang Z, Li Z, Wang Z, Xiong Z, Zhang Z (2011) The genome of the mesopolyploid crop species Brassica rapa. Nat Genet 43:1035-1039
  43. Whitelam GC, Halliday KJ (2007) Light and plant development. Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 30. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Oxford
  44. Workman C, Jensen LJ, Jarmer H, Berka R, Gautier L, Nielser, HB, Saxild HH, Nielsen C, Brunak S, Knudsen S (2002) A new non-linear normalization method for reducing variability in DNA microarray experiments. Genome Biol 3:1-16
  45. Zang, YX, Kim HU, Kim JA, Lim MH, Jin M, Lee SC, Kwon SJ, Lee SI, Hong JK, Park TH, Mun JH, Seol YJ, Hong SB, Park BS (2009) Genome-wide identification of glucosinolate synthesis genes in Brassica rapa. FEBS J 276: 3559-3574