Synergistic Anti-diabetic Effect of Cirsium setidens Combined with Other Plants in vitro and in vivo

  • Huifang, Guo ;
  • Jiang, Yunyao ;
  • Wang, Myeong-Hyeon
  • Received : 2015.11.17
  • Accepted : 2015.12.07
  • Published : 2015.12.31


The anti-diabetic effect of Cirsium setidens water extract and the combinations with Bletilla striata, Cymbidium kanran, and Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham. ethanolic extracts had been studied. The combination of four extracts (3:1:1:1) showed larger anti-diabetic activity in vitro and in vivo. It is notable that the single water extract from C. setidens exhibited more effective anti-diabetic effect than most of the combinations. We also investigated whether fermentation process was promoted the anti-diabetic activity. The data suggested the fermentation product of combination of four extracts (3:1:1:1) exhibited the strongest activity both in vitro and in vivo, which was higher than the non-fermented group. The result indicated the fermentation and the appropriate combination of extracts enhanced the anti-diabetes activity.


Anti-diabetes;Cirsium setidens;Hypoglycemic;Synergistic


  1. Choi, J.W., W.B. Kim, J.H. Nam and H.J. Park. 2007. Antidiabetic effect of the methanolic extract of Ligularia stenocephala leaves in the streptozotocin-induced rat. Korean J. Plant Res. 20(4):362-366.
  2. Bhandari, M.R., N. Jong-Anurakkun, G. Hong and J. Kawabata. 2008. α-Glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of Nepalese medicinal herb Pakhanbhed (Bergenia ciliata, Haw.). Food Chem. 106(1):247-252.
  3. Balon, T.W., A.P. Jasman and J.S. Zhu. 2002. A fermentation product of Cordyceps sinensis increases whole-body insulin sensitivity in rats. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 8(3):315-323.
  4. Atangwho, I.J., P.E. Ebong, E.U. Eyong, M.Z. Asmawi and M. Ahmad. 2012. Synergistic antidiabetic activity of Vernonia amygdalina and Azadirachta indica: Biochemical effects and possible mechanism. J. Ethnopharmacol. 141(3):878-887.
  5. Martins, S., S.I. Mussatto, G. Martínez-Avila, J. Montañez-Saenz, C.N. Aguilar and J.A. Teixeira. 2011. Bioactive phenolic compounds: Production and extraction by solid-state fermentation. A review. Biotechnol. Adv. 29(3):365-373.
  6. Kim, Y.M., Y.K. Jeong, M.H. Wang, W.Y. Lee and H.I. Rhee. 2005. Inhibitory effect of pine extract on α-glucosidase activity and postprandial hyperglycemia. Nutrition 21(6): 756-761.
  7. Kim, H.S., T.W. Kim, D.J. Kim, J.S. Lee, K.K. Kim and M. Choe. 2013. Antioxidant activities and α-glucosidase inhibitory effect of water extracts from medicinal plants. Korean J. Med. Crop. Sci. 21(3):197-203.
  8. Kim, H.Y., S.H. Lim, Y.H. Park, H.J. Ham, K.J. Lee, D.S. Park, K.H. Kim and S.M. Kim. 2011. Screening of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory activity with Gangwon-do wild plants extracts. J. Korean. Soc. Food. Sci. Nutr. 40(2): 308-315.
  9. Gilbert, B. and L. Alves. 2003. Synergy in plant medicines. Curr. Med. Chem. 10(1):13-20.
  10. Ezuruike, U.F. and J.M. Prieto. 2014. The use of plants in the traditional management of diabetes in Nigeria: Pharmacological and toxicological considerations. J. Ethnopharmacol. 155(2): 857-924.
  11. Ernst, E. 1997. Plants with hypoglycemic activity in humans. Phytomedicine 4(1):73-78.
  12. Đorđević, T.M., S.S. Šiler-Marinković and S.I. Dimitrijević-Branković. 2010. Effect of fermentation on antioxidant properties of some cereals and pseudo cereals. Food Chem. 119(3): 957-963.
  13. Cnop, M., N. Welsh, J.C. Jonas, A. Jörns, S. Lenzen and D.L. Eizirik. 2005. Mechanisms of pancreatic β-cell death in type 1 and type 2 diabetes many differences, few similarities. Diabetes 54 (suppl. 2):S97-S107.
  14. Sharma, S., M. Choudhary, S. Bhardwaj, N. Choudhary and A.C. Rana. 2014. Hypoglycemic potential of alcoholic root extract of Cassia occidentalis L. in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino mice. Bulletin of Faculty of Pharmacy. Cairo University. 52(2):211-217.
  15. Reddy, N.R. and M.D. Pierson. 1994. Reduction in antinutritional and toxic components in plant foods by fermentation. Food Res. Int. 27(3):281-290.
  16. Rasoanaivo, P., C.W. Wright, M.L. Willcox and B. Gilbert. 2011. Whole plant extracts versus single compounds for the treatment of malaria: synergy and positive interactions. Malar. J. 10(Suppl. 1):S4.
  17. Park, J.H., Y. Yin and M.H. Wang. 2010. Antioxidant and anti-diabetes activities of methanolic extract and fractions of Astragalus membranaceus roots. J. Food. Nutr. 15(1):30-35.
  18. Park, H.J., D.H. Jung, H.M. Joo, N.S. Kang, S.A. Jang, J.G. Lee and E.H. Sohn. 2010. The comparative study of anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects by fermented red ginseng and red ginseng. Korean J. Plant Res. 23(5):415-422.
  19. nee’Nigam, P.S. 2009. Production of bioayctive secondary metabolites: In Nigam, P.S.N and A. Pandey (eds.), Biotechnology for Agro-Industrial Residues Utilisation, Springer Science & Business Media, Dordreeht, Netherlands. pp. 129-145.
  20. Mitra, A. 2008. Some salient points in dietary and life-style survey of rural Bengal particularly tribal populace in relation to rural diabetes prevalence. Ethno Med. 2(1):51-56.
  21. McCue, P.P. and K. Shetty. 2004. Inhibitory effects of rosmarinic acid extracts on porcine pancreatic amylase in vitro. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 13(1):101-106.
  22. Mccue, P., Y.I. Kwon and K. Shetty. 2005. Anti‐amylase, anti‐glucosidase and anti‐angiotensin i‐converting enzyme potential of selected foods. J. Food Biochem. 29(3):278-294.
  23. Yu, L., X. Nie, H. Pan, S. Ling, D. Zhang and K. Bian. 2011. Diabetes mellitus ulcers treatment with Bletilla striata polysaccharide. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 36(11):1487-1491.
  24. Xu, M.L., L. Wang, J.H. Hu and M.H. Wang. 2009. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the extract from Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham. root and its constituent compounds. J. Food. Nutr. 14(4):354-357.
  25. Tiwari, A.K. and J. Madhusudanarao. 2002. Diabetes mellitus and multiple therapeutic approaches of phytochemicals: Present status and future prospects. Curr. Sci. 83(1):30-38.
  26. Sunil, C., G. Latha, P. Mohanraj, K. Kalichelvan and P. Agastian. 2009. α-Glucosidase inhibitory and antidiabetic activities of ethanolic extract of Pisonia alba Span. leaves. Int. J. Integr. Biol. 6(1):41-45.
  27. Shaw, J.E., R.A. Sicree and P.Z. Zimmet. 2010. Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 87(1):4-14.