Computational and Experimental Studies on Added Resistance of AFRAMAX-Class Tankers in Head Seas

선수파 중 AFRAMAX급 유조선의 부가저항에 대한 실험과 수치계산

  • Received : 2015.10.01
  • Accepted : 2015.12.08
  • Published : 2015.12.20


When a ship sails in a seaway, the resistance on a ship increases due to incident waves and winds. The magnitude of added resistance amounts to about 15–30% of a calm-water resistance. An accurate prediction of added resistance in waves, therefore, is essential to evaluate the performance of a ship in a real sea state and to design an optimum hull form from the viewpoint of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulations such as Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) and Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI). The present study considers added resistance problem of AFRAMAX-class tankers with the conventional bow and Ax-bow shapes. Added resistance due to waves is successfully calculated using 1) a three-dimensional time-domain seakeeping computations based on a Rankine panel method (three-dimensional panel) and 2) a commercial CFD program (STAR-CCM+). In the hydrodynamic computations of a three-dimensional panel method, geometric nonlinearity is accounted for in Froude-Krylov and restoring forces using simple wave corrections over exact wet hull surface of the tankers. Furthermore, a CFD program is applied by performing fully nonlinear computation without using an analytical formula for added resistance or empirical values for the viscous effect. Numerical computations are validated through four degree-of-freedom model-scale seakeeping experiments in regular head waves at the deep towing tank of Hyundai Heavy Industries.


Energy Efficiency Design Index;Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator;Added resistance in waves;Rankine panel method;Commercial CFD;Ax-bow;AFRAMAX-Class Tankers


  1. International Towing Tank Conference (ITTC), 2011. Prediction of power increase in irregular waves from model test (7.5-02-07-02.2). ITTC-recommended procedures. International Towing Tank Conference.
  2. Guoa, B.J. Steena, S.& Dengb, G.B., 2012. Seakeeping prediction of KVLCC2 in head waves with RANS. Applied Ocean Research, 35, pp.56-67.
  3. Gerritsma, J. & Beukelman, W., 1972. Analysis of the Resistance Increase in Waves of a Fast Cargo Ship. International Shipbuilding Progress, 19(217), pp.285-293.
  4. Fujii, H. & Takahashi, T., 1975. Experimental study on the resistance increase of a ship in regular oblique waves. Proceeding of the 14th ITTC, Ottawa, September 1975, pp.351-360.
  5. Fang, M.C. & Chen, G.R., 2006. On the Nonlinear Hydrodynamic Forces for a Ship Advancing in Waves. Ocean Engineering, 33(16), pp.2119-2134.
  6. Faltinsen, O.M. Minsaas, K.J. Liapis, N. & Skjørdal, S.O., 1980. Prediction of resistance and propulsion of a ship in a seaway. Proceeding of 13th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Tokyo, Japan, 6-10 October 1980, pp.505-529.
  7. Chun, H.H., 1992. On the Added Resistance of SWATH Ships in Waves. Transactions of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea, 29(4), pp.75-86.
  8. Bøckmann, A. Pâkozdi, C. Kristiansen, T. Jang, H. & Kim, J., 2014. An experimental and computational development of a benchmarksolution for the validation of numerical wave tanks. Proceedings of the ASME 2014 33rd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, San Francisco, CA, USA, 8-13 June 2014.
  9. Nakamura, S. & Naito, S., 1977. Propulsive Performance of a Containership in Waves. Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Japan, 15, pp. 24-48.
  10. Matsumoto, K., 2002. Ax-Bow : A New Energy-saving Bow Shape at Sea. NKK Technical review No. 86, pp.46-47.
  11. Maruo, H., 1960. Wave resistance of a ship in regular head seas. Bulletin of the Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, 9, pp.73-91.
  12. Kuroda, M. Tsujimoto, M. & Sasaki, N., 2012. Development of STEP for the reduction of added resistance in waves. Proceedings of the 22nd ISOPE Conference, Rhodes, Greece, 17 June 2012. pp.819-825.
  13. Kim, K.H. Seo, M.G. & Kim, Y., 2012. Numerical Analysis on Added Resistance of Ships. International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering, 21(1), pp.21-29.
  14. Kazuyoshi, H. Koichiro, M. Kenji, T. Hideo, O. & Hisafumi, Y., 2004. Verification of Ax-Bow Effect based on Full Scale Measurement. Journal of Kansai Society of Naval Architects, 24(1), pp.33-40.
  15. Journee, J.M.J., 1992. Experiments and calculations on four Wigley hull forms. Report 0909-DUT-92, Delft: Delft University of Technology.
  16. Joncquez, S.A.G., 2009. Second-order forces and moments acting on ships in waves. Ph.D. Thesis Technical University of Denmark.
  17. Joncquez, S.A.G. Simonsen, C.D. & Otzen, J.F., 2012. Computational evaluation of the added resistance in oblique seas. The 27th International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies, Copenhagen, Denmark, 22-25 April 2012.
  18. Jeong, K.L. & Lee, Y.G., 2014. Numerical Simulation of the Flow around Advancing Ships in Regular Waves using a Fixed Rectilinear Grid System. Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea, 51(5), pp.419-428.
  19. Yang, K.K. Lee, J.H. Nam, B.W. & Kim, Y., 2013. Analysis of Added Resistance using a Cartesian-Grid-based Computational Method. Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea, 50(2), pp.79-87.
  20. Storm-Tejsen, J. Yeh, H.Y.H. & Moran, D.D., 1973. Added Resistance in Waves. Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers Transactions, 81, pp.250-279.
  21. Söding, H., Shigunov,V., Schellin, T.E. & Moctar, O.E., 2012. A rankine panel method for added resistance of ships in waves. Proceedings of the ASME 2012 31st International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1-6 July 2012.
  22. Seo, M.G., Kim, K.H.,Park, D.M. & Kim, Y., 2013. Comparative Study on Added Resistance for Different Hull Forms by using Weakly-Nonlinear Seakeeping Formulations. Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea, 50(1), pp.49-58.
  23. Park, D.M., Seo, M.G., Lee, J., Yang K.K. & Kim, Y., 2014. Systematic Experimental and Numerical Analyses on Added Resistance in Waves. Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea, 51(6), pp.459-473
  24. Orihara, H. & Miyata, H., 2003. Evaluation of Added Resistance in Regular Incident Waves by Computational Fluid Dynamics Motion Simulation using an Overlapping Grid System. Journal of Marine Science and Technology, 8(2), pp.47-60.