Development of Salted Semi-dried Common Gray Mullet Mugil cephalus using Response Surface Methodology

Response Surface Methodology를 이용한 숭어(Mugil cephalus) 반염건품의 개발

  • Received : 2015.08.16
  • Accepted : 2015.09.07
  • Published : 2015.12.31


This study examined the optimal salting drying method and processing conditions (salt concentration, curing time, dry temperature, and drying time) for preparing salted semi-dried common gray mullet (SSD-CGM) Mugil cephalus based on the moisture content, salinity, and overall acceptance using response surface methodology (RSM). The moisture content, salinity, and overall acceptance of SSD-CGM prepared with different salting methods revealed that dry salting was the optimal salting method for preparing high-quality SSD-CGM. The optimal drying method for preparing high-quality SSD-CGM based on the drying velocity and sensory color was hot air-blast drying. The results of the RSM program indicated that the optimal independent variables ($X_1$, salt concentration; $X_2$, curing time; $X_3$, dry temperature; $X_4$, drying time) based on the dependent variables ($Y_1$, moisture content; $Y_2$, salinity; $Y_3$, overall acceptance) for high-quality SSD-CGM were 5.6% for $X_1$, 2.7 h for $X_2$, $47.0^{\circ}C$ for $X_3$, and 8.5 h for $X_4$ for uncoded values. The predicted values of $Y_1$, $Y_2$, and $Y_3$ for SSD-CGM prepared under optimal conditions were 54.4%, 4.2%, and 6.3, respectively, while the experimental values were $55.2{\pm}1.0%$, $4.1{\pm}0.3%$ and $6.7{\pm}0.8$. The actual and predicted values did not differ.


Salted semi-dried fish;Common gray mullet;Mugil cephalus;Response surface methodology;RSM


  1. Agriculture Forestry Fisheries Information Service. 2015. Fisheries information service. Retrieved from on August 20.
  2. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC, U.S.A.
  3. Celik U, Altielataman C, Dincer T and Acarli D. 2012. Comparison of fresh and dried flathead grey mullet (Mugil cephalus, Linnaeus 1758) caviar by means of proximate composition and quality changes during refrigerated storage at $4{\pm}2^{\circ}C$. Turkish J Fish Aquatic Sci 12, 1-5.
  4. Cho SJ, Kim DY and Rhee CO. 1988. Fatty acids of natural lipids of salted-dried mullet roe during processing and storages. J Korean Soc Food Nutr 18, 19-28.
  5. Cho SJ, Rhee CO and Kim DY. 1989. Study on the processing and compositions of salted and dried mullet roe. Korean J Food Sci Technol 21, 242-251.
  6. Cho SM, Gu YS and Kim SB. 2005. Extracting optimization and physical properties of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) skin gelatin compared to mammalian gelatins. Food Hydrocolloids 19, 221-229.
  7. Gontard N, Guilbert S and Cuq JL 1992. Edible wheat gluten films: Influence of the main process variables on film properties using response surface methodology. J Food Sci 57, 190-196.
  8. Heu MS, Shin JH, Park KH, Lee JS, Noe YN, Jeon YJ and Kim JS. 2011. Quality of bastard halibut with different weights as a surimi source. Korean J Fish Aquat Sci 44, 18-24.
  9. Heu MS, Park KH, Kim KH, Kang SI, Choi JD and Kim JS. 2014. Sanitary quality characterization of commercial salted semi-dried brown croaker. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 43, 584-591.
  10. Joo DS. 2011. Changes in quality of salted and dried browncroaker product prepared with deep seawater salt. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 40, 235-244.
  11. Kim HJ, Yoon MS, Park KH, Shin JH, Heu MS and Kim JS. 2010. Processing optimization of gelatin from rockfish skin based on yield. Fish Aquat Sci 13, 1-11.
  12. Kim HS, Seong JH, Lee YG, Xie CL, Choi WS, Kim SH and Yoon HD. 2009. Effect of low molecular-weight collagen peptide extract isolated from scales of the flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) on lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemic rats. Korean J Food Preserve 16, 938-945.
  13. Kim IS, Lee TG, Yeum DM, Cho ML, Park HW, Cho TJ, Heu MS and Kim JS. 2000. Food component characteristics of cold air dried anchovies. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 29, 973-980.
  14. Lee GD, Kim HG, Kim JG and Kwon JH. 1997. Optimization for the preparation condition of instant rice gruel using oyster mushroom and brown rice. Korean J Food Sci Technol 29, 737-744.
  15. Lee YW and Park YH. 1985. Effect of partial freezing as a keeping freshness. 1. Changes in freshness and gel forming ability of mullet muscle during storage by partial freezing. Bull Korean Fish Soc 18, 529-537.
  16. Park KH. 2011. Development of salted semi-dried common gray mullet using response surface methodology and improvement of its quality stability by soaking into green tea extracts. MS thesis. Gyeongsang National University, Tongyeong, Korea.
  17. Rafieian F, Keramat J and Kadivar M. 2011. Optimization of gelatin extraction from chicken deboner residue using RSM method. J Food Sci Technol 50, 374-380.
  18. Shin JH, Park KH, Lee JS, Kim HJ, Lee DH, Heu MS, Jeon YJ and Kim JS. 2011. Optimization of processing of surimi gel from unmarketable cultured bastard halibut Paralichthys olivaceus using RSM. Korean J Fish Aquat Sci 44, 435-442.
  19. Song YB, Baek HJ, Kim HB, Lee KJ, Soyano K and Lee YB. 2005. Induced sex reversal of sevenband grouper, Epinephelus septemfasciatus by $17{\alpha}$-methyltsetosterone. J Aquaculture 18, 167-172.
  20. Zhou P and Regenstein JM. 2004. Optimization of extraction conditions for pollock skin gelatin. J Food Sci 69, C393-C398.