Concentration distributions and formation characteristics of trihalomethanes in drinking water supplies to rural communities

농촌지역 마을상수 중 trihalomethanes의 농도 분포 및 생성 특성

  • Received : 2015.01.16
  • Accepted : 2015.02.06
  • Published : 2015.02.25


This study aimed to investigate the concentration distributions and formation characteristics of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water supplies to rural communities. Water samples were collected twice from 40 rural households located on the outskirts of Chuncheon city of Gangwon Province in the summers of 2010 and 2011, and urban drinking water samples were collected from 20 faucets during the same period in 2011 for comparison purpose. Water temperature, pH, and residual chlorine (total and free) concentrations were measured in the field, and samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and THM concentrations in the laboratory. The average DOC concentrations in rural water samples were not greatly different between groundwater (n = 20) and surface water (n = 20) which were used as sources for drinking water (1.81 vs. 1.91 mg/L). However, the average concentrations of total THMs (TTHMs) in groundwater ($9.77{\mu}g/L$) were much higher than those in surface water ($2.85{\mu}g/L$) and similar to those in urban drinking water samples ($10.8{\mu}g/L$). Unlike urban water supply, rural water (particularly groundwater) contained more brominated THM species such as dibromochloromethane (DBCM), suggesting its relatively high content of bromide ion (Br-). This study showed that rural water supplies have different THM formation characteristics from urban water supplies, probably due to their differences in source water quality properties.


GC-MS;purge and trap;trihalomethanes;rural drinking water supply


  1. Ministry of Environment, '2012 Drinking Water Supply Statistics', 2013.
  2. K. A. Yun, M. H. Koo, G. H. Yi, H. S. Sin, J. Y. Jung, J. C. Shin, S. R. Kim and G. J. Choi, Rep. Inst. Health & Environ., 22, 89-98 (2011).
  3. H. Kim, J. Song and B. Song, J. Environ. Toxicol., 24, 293-301 (2009).
  4. EPA, Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS),
  5. H. Kim, M. Kim and J. Yoon, Kor. J. Environ. Toxicol., 17, 125-133 (2002).
  6. G. Bae, Y. Baek, K. Ryu, S. Shin and C. Lee, J. Kor. Soc. Environ. Eng., 33, 893-899 (2011).
  7. H. Shin and H. Kim, J. Kor. Soc. Water Qual., 20, 120-125 (2004).
  8. H. Kim, Sci. Total Environ., 403, 59-67 (2008).
  9. EPA, Method 524.3 - EPA Document # EPA 815-B-09-009 (June 2009), USA.
  10. E. E. Chang, Y. P. Lin and P. C. Chiang, Chemopsphere, 43, 1029-1034 (2001).
  11. P. Westerhoff, P. Chao and H. Mash, Water Res., 38, 1502-1513 (2004).
  12. V. Uyak and I. Toroz, J. Hazard. Mater., 149, 445-451 (2007).
  13. R. Sadiq and M. J. Rodriguez, Sci. Total Environ., 321, 21-46 (2004).
  14. S. Chowdhury, P. Champagne and P. J. McLellan, Sci. Total Environ., 407, 4189-4206 (2009).