- Volume 5 Issue 1
DOI QR Code
Physiological variations in the autonomic responses may be related to the constitutional types defined in Ayurveda
- Rapolu, Sunil Buchiramulu ;
- Kumar, Manoj ;
- Singh, Girish ;
- Patwardhan, Kishor
- Received : 2014.10.06
- Accepted : 2015.02.07
- Published : 2015.02.28
According to Ayurveda, an individual can be classified into any one of the seven constitutional types (Prakriti) depending on the dominance of one, two, or three Doshas. A 'Dosha' is representative of fundamental mechanisms that are responsible for homeostasis, and thus, to health. In the recent years, there have been several efforts to see whether certain physiological, haematological or biochemical parameters have any relationship with the constitutional types or not. The objective of the present study was to see if the results of autonomic function tests vary according to Prakriti of an individual. We conducted this study in clinically healthy volunteers of both the gender belonging to the age group of 17 to 35 years after obtaining their written consent. The Prakriti of these volunteers was assessed on the basis of a validated questionnaire and also by traditional method of interviewing. After confirming that the primary Dosha ascertained by both these methods matched, 106 volunteers were grouped into three on the basis of primary Dosha and were subjected to various autonomic function tests such as cold pressor test, standing-to-lying ratio, Valsalva ratio and pupillary responses such as pupil cycle time and pupil size measurement in light and dark. The results suggest that, the autonomic function tests in the healthy individuals may correlate linearly with the primary Dosha expressed in an individual. In particular, people with Kapha as the most dominant Dosha showed a tendency to have either a higher parasympathetic activity or a lower sympathetic activity with respect to their cardiovascular reactivity in comparison to the individuals with Pitta or Vata as the most dominant Dosha.
Ayurveda;Indian traditional medicine;Prakriti;constitution;autonomic responses;pupillary responses
- Aggarwal S, Negi S, Jha P, Singh PK, Stobdan T, Pasha MA, et al. EGLN1 involvement in high-altitude adaptation revealed through genetic analysis of extreme constitution types defined in Ayurveda. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18961-18966. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1006108107
- Bhalerao S, Deshpande T. Prakriti (Ayurvedic concept of constitution) and variations in platelet aggregation. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012;12:248. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-12-248
- Cahill M, Eustace P, de Jesus V. Pupillary autonomic denervation with increasing duration of diabetes mellitus. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001;85:1225-1230. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjo.85.10.1225
- Dey S, Pahwa P. Prakriti and its associations with metabolism, chronic diseases, and genotypes: Possibilities of new born screening and a lifetime of personalized prevention. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2014;5:15-24. https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-9476.128848
- Dubey SD, Singh AN, Kumar A, Singh A. Charaka Samhita, Vimana Sthana Chapter 8. Available at: http://www.carakasamhitaonline.com/wiki/Vimana_sthana_chapter_8. (accessed on 23rd January 2015).
- Ghai CL. A text book of Practical Physiology. 7th ed. (New Delhi, India: Jaypee Brothers), 2007.
- Ghodke Y, Joshi k, Patwardhan B. Traditional Medicine to Modern Pharmacogenomics: Ayurveda Prakriti Type and CYP2C19 Gene Polymorphism Associated with the Metabolic Variability. Evid Based complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:249528.
- Jayasundar R. Ayurveda: A distinctive approach to health and disease. Current Science. 2010;98:908-914.
- Kurande V, Bilgrau AE, Waagepetersen R, Toft E, Prasad R. Inter-rater Reliability of Diagnostic Methods in Traditional Indian Ayurvedic Medicine. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:658275.
- Kurande VH, Waagepetersen R, Toft E, Prasad R. Reliability studies of diagnostic methods in Indian traditional Ayurveda medicine: An overview. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2013;4:67-76. https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-9476.113867
- Low PA, Tomalia VA, Park KJ. Autonomic function tests: some clinical applications. J Clin Neurol. 2013;9:1-8. https://doi.org/10.3988/jcn.2013.9.1.1
- Manor RS, Yassur Y, Seigal R, Ben I. The Pupil Cycle time test: Age Variations in normal subjects. Br J Ophthalmol. 1981;65:750-753. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjo.65.11.750
- McCorry LK. Physiology of the autonomic nervous system. Am J Pharm Educ. 2007;71:78. https://doi.org/10.5688/aj710478
- Miller SD, Thomson HS. Edge-light pupil cycle time. Br J Ophthalmol. 1978;62:495-500. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjo.62.7.495
- Moodithaya S, Avadhany ST. Pupillary Autonomic Activity by Assessment of pupil cycle time; Reference value for healthy men & women. Sci Med. 2009;1:1-6.
- Moodithaya S, Avadhany ST. Gender differences in Age Related changes in cardiac Autonomic nervous function. J Aging Res. 2012;2012:679345.
- Neumann C, Schmid H. Standardization of a computerized method for calculating autonomic function test responses in healthy subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1997;30:197-205. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X1997000200007
- Noronha JL, Bhandarkar SD, Shenoy PN, Retnam VJ. Autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus. J Postgrad Med. 1981;27:1-6.
- Patel AD. Autonomic nervous system Part 1. In Handbook of clinical neurology series. Appenzeller O ed. 1st ed. (Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier), 1999.
- Patwardhan B, Joshi K, Chopra A. Classification of human population based on HLA gene polymorphism and the concept of Prakriti in Ayurveda. J Altern Complement Med. 2005;11:349-353. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2005.11.349
- Patwardhan K. Human Physiology in Ayurveda (Reprint Edition). (Varanasi, India: Chaukhambha Oriantalia), p74, 2013.
- Prasher B, Negi S, Aggarwal S, Mandal AK, Sethi TP, Deshmukh SR, Purohit SG, Sengupta S, Khanna S, Mohammad F, Garg G, Brahmachari SK; Indian Genome Variation Consortium, Mukerji M. Whole genome expression and biochemical correlates of extreme constitutional types defined in Ayurveda. J Transl Med. 2008;6:48. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5876-6-48
- Thompson D. The Ayurvedic Diet, The ancient way to health rejuvenation and weight control. Tinkle S ed. (New Delhi, India: New Age Books), 2001.
- Tripathi JS, Singh RH. Concept of Deha Prakriti vis-a-vis human constitution in Ayurveda. Anc Sci Life. 1994;13:314-325.
- Tripathi PK, Patwardhan K, Singh G. Modified version of the self-assessment questionnaire to assess Prakriti. 2010. Available at: http://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2011/251850.f1.pdf (accessed on 02nd August 2014).
- Tripathi PK, Patwardhan K, Singh G. The Basic Cardiovascular responses to postural changes, exercise and cold pressor test: Do they vary in accordance with the dual constitutional types of Ayurveda? Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:251850.
- Udupa KN, Singh RH, Dubey GP, Rai V, Singh MB. Biochemical basis of psychosomatic constitution. Indian J Med Res. 1975;63:923-927.