The anti-inflammatory effect of Portulaca oleracea 70% EtOH Extracts on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells

LPS로 유도한 RAW 264.7 세포의 염증반응에서 마치현(馬齒莧) 70% 에탄올 추출물의 항염증 효과

  • Received : 2015.10.19
  • Accepted : 2015.11.16
  • Published : 2015.11.30


Objectives : Portulaca oleracea (PO) have been used as a traditional medicine to treat inflammatory diseases in Korea. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of PO ethanol extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation is not well-known. Therefore, this study was performed to identify the anti-inflammatory effect of PO on LPS induced inflammatory.Methods : Identification of PO was conducted by comparison with purified standards by HPLC. To measure out the cytotoxicity of PO, author performed the MTT assay. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of PO, author examined the inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin, (IL)-1β and IL-6) on RAW 264.7 cells. Author also examined molecular mechanisms such as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-B (NF-κB) activation by western blot.Results : Three major components (peaks 1, 2, 3) were detected in both varieties and peak 1 was characterized as caffeic acid, peak 2 as p-coumaric acid, and peak 3 as ferulic acid by comparison of chromatographic properties with authentic standards. Extract from PO itself did not have any cytotoxic effect in RAW 264.7 cells. PO inhibited LPS-induced productions of inflammatory mediators such as NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7cells. In addition, PO inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and NF-κB activation in RAW 264.7 cells.Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of PO and this study suggest that treatment of PO could reduce the LPS-induced inflammation. Thereby, PO could be used as a protective agent against inflammation.


Lipopolysaccharide (LPS);Portulaca oleracea (PO);Inflammation;mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)


  1. Kim DH, Park SJ, Jung JY, Kim SC, Byun SH. Antiinflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Hwangnyenhaedok-tang in LPS-activated macrophage cells. Kor J Herbol. 2009 ; 24 : 39-47.
  2. Behrens EM. Macrophage activation syndrome in rheumatic disease: What is the role of the antigen presenting cell? Autoimmun Rev. 2008 ; 7 : 305-8.
  3. Lopez-Bojorquez LN, Dehesa AZ, Reyes-Teran G. Molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of septic shock. Arch Med Res. 2004 ; 35 : 465–79.
  4. McDaniel ML, Kwon G, Hill JR, Marshall CA, Corbett JA. Cytokines and nitric oxide in islet inflammation and diabetes. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1996 ; 211 : 24-32.
  5. Beinke S, Ley SC. Functions of NF-kappaB1 and NF-kappaB2 in immune cell biology. Biochem J. 2004 ; 382 : 393-409.
  6. Moncada S, Higgs EA. Endogenous nitric oxide : physiology pathology and clinical relevance. Eur J Clin Ivest. 1991 ; 21 : 361-74.
  7. Rocca B, FitzGerald GA. Cyclooxygenases and prostaglandins: shaping up the immune response. Int Immunopharmacol. 2002 ; 2 : 603-30.
  8. Athman R, Philpott D. Innate immunity via Toll-like receptors and Nod proteins. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2004 ; 7 : 25-32.
  9. Zhang XJ, Ji YB, Qu Z, Xia J, Wang L. Experimental studies on antibiotic functions of Portulaca oleracea L. in vitro. Chin J Microecol. 2002 ; 14 : 277-80.
  10. Sakai N, Inada K, Okamoto M, Shizuri Y, Fukuyama Y. Portuloside A, a monoterpene glucoside from Portulaca oleracea. Phytochemistry. 1996 ; 42 : 1625-8.
  11. Changquan L, Liwei D, Hailiang X, Min L, Wanyin W, Lin J. Ethanol extract of Portulaca oleracea L. protects against hypoxia-induced neuro damage through modulating endogenous erythropoietin expression. J Nutr Biochem. 2014 ; 23 : 385-91.
  12. Hu LF, Xu XY, Wang BQ. Research and utilization situation of Portulaca Oleracea L in China. Pract J Med Pharm. 2003 ; 20 : 315-6.
  13. Xiang L, Xing D, Wang W, Wang R, Ding Y, Du L. Alkaloids from Portulaca oleracea L. Phytochemistry. 2005 ; 66 : 2595-601.
  14. Liu LX, Howe P, Zhou YF, Xu ZQ, Hocart C, Zhang R. Fatty acids and b-carotene in Australian purslane (Portulaca oleracea) varieties. J Chromatogr A. 2000 ; 893 : 207-13.
  15. Karimi G, Hosseinzadeh H, Ettehad N. Evaluation of the gastric antiulcerogenic effects of Portulaca olerracea L. extracts in mice. Phytother Res. 2004 ; 18 : 484-7.
  16. Ajizian SJ, English BK, Meals EA. Specific inhibitors of p38 and extracellular signal regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways block inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor accumulation in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma. J Infect Dis. 1999 ; 179 : 939-44.
  17. Rashed AN, Afifi FU, Disi AM. Simple evaluation of the wound healing activity of a crude extract of Portulaca oleracea L. (growing in Jordan) in Mus musculus JVI-1. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 ; 88 : 131-6.
  18. Kim CH. The inhibitory effects of Portulaca oleracea L. on HCl-ethanol induced gastritis in rats. Kor J Herbol. 2009 ; 24 : 41-7.
  19. Lim YY, Quaha EPL. Antioxidant properties of different cultivars of Portulaca oleracea. Food Chem. 2007 ; 103 : 734-40.
  20. Moncada S, Palmer RM, Higgs EA. Nitric oxide: physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology. Pharmacol Rev. 1991 ; 43 : 109-42.
  21. MaCartney-Francis N, Allen JB, Mizel DE, Albina JI, Xie QW, Nathan CF, Wahl SM. Suppression of arthritis by an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. J Exp Med. 1993 ; 178 : 749-54.
  22. Bishop-Bailey D, Calatayud S, Warner TD, Hla T, Michell A. Prostaglandins and the regulation of tumor growth. J Environ Pathol Tox Oncol. 2002 ; 21 : 93-101.
  23. Oh CH translation. simple immunology. Seoul : Seoul medical korea. 2006 : 161-200.
  24. Cobb MH, Goldsmith EJ. Dimerization in MAPkinase signaling. Trends Biochem Sci. 2000 ; 25 : 7–9.
  25. Celec P. Nuclear factor kappa B-molecular biomedicine the nest generation. Biomed Pharmacother. 2004 ; 58 : 365-71.
  26. Gang A, Aggarwal BB. Nuclear transcription factorkappaB as a target for cancer drug development. Leukemia. 2002 ; 16 : 1053-68.
  27. Frenkel K, Wei H, Bhimani R et al. Inhibition of tumor promoter-mediated processes in mouse skin and bovine lens by caffeic acid phenethyl ester. Cancer Res. 1993 ; 53 : 1255-61.
  28. Ferguson LR, Zhu ST, Harris PJ. Antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of plant cell wall hydroxycinnamic acids in cultured HT-29 cells. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2005 ; 49 : 585-93.
  29. Kang JR, Lee JY, Whang WK. Antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of elscholtziae splendense. J Kor Soc Cosm. 2007 ; 13 : 163-70.