Patterns of Observation Type of Elementary Science-gifted Students in Visit Activities of the Science Museum

과학박물관 탐방활동에서 나타난 초등 과학 영재 학생들의 관찰 유형 분석

  • 김미모아 (한국교원대학교 지구과학교육학과) ;
  • 정진우 (한국교원대학교 지구과학교육학과) ;
  • 김형범 (충북대학교 지구과학교육과)
  • Received : 2014.11.25
  • Accepted : 2015.01.23
  • Published : 2015.03.28


The aim of this study was to categorize and analyze the patterns of the observation type in the experiential learning through the science museum for elementary gifted students in science. Ten science-gifted students were included and analyzed in this study and during experiential learning in the science museum, the participants freely expressed their observation of their own languages and all observations and dialogue were recorded. The results are listed below. The cognitive aspect, especially question and response activity without their personal opinion, was the most frequently used item. Among the affective aspects, item for 'recommendation' was often used. In accordance to observation type, most participants overall observed single object independently of time. Also, participants mostly observed objects visually using qualitative method without manipulation. Therefore verbal interaction through question might have a positive effect on frequency and diversity of observation. Project learning, such as particular exhibition hall, exploratory time of concentration by students, or study paper will be capable of creating a effective observation learning in order to induce a variety of observation of science gifted students in the experiential learning through the science museum.


Observation;Science-gifted Student;Science Museum;Experiential Learning


  1. National Science Teachers Association, "An NSTA position statement: Informal science education," Journal of College Science Teaching, Vol.28, No.1, pp.17-18, 1998.
  2. 교육과학기술부, 개정 고시 과학과 교육과정 No. 2011-361, 교육과학기술부, 2011.
  3. A. Y. Kolb and D. A. Kolb, "Learning styles and learning spaces: Enhancing experiential learning in higher education," Academy of Management Learning and Education, Vol.4, No.2, pp.192-212, 2005.
  4. J. H. Falk and L. D. Dierking, Learning from museums: Visitor experiences and the making of meaning, Altamira Press, 2000.
  5. 안성혜, 윤세진, "어린이를 위한 박물관의 체험학습 프로그램 사례연구", 한국콘텐츠학회논문지, 제5권, 제1호, pp.19-23, 2007.
  6. D. W. Johnson, R. T. Johnson, E. J. Holubec, and P. Roy, "Circles of learning," Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1984.
  7. L. S. Vygotsky, Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes, Harvard University Press, 1978.
  8. J. Wellington, "Formal and informal learning in science: The role of the interactive science centres," Physics Education, Vol.25, No.5, pp.247-252, 1990.
  9. J. S. Renzulli, "What makes giftedness? Re-examining a definition," Phi Delta Kappan, Vol.60, No.3, pp.180-184, 1978.
  10. G. A. Davis and S. B. Rimm, Education of the Gifted and Talented, Boston, Pearson Education, 1985.
  11. 박경빈, 박가영, "초등 영재아의 학습스타일과 학습자 특성 간의 관계 연구", 영재교육연구, 제20권, 제2호, pp.571-594, 2010.
  12. N. M. Lambert and B. L. McCombs, "How students learn: Reforming schools through learner-centered education," American Psychological Association, 1998.
  13. M. Adam, "Why worry about theory-dependence? Circularity, minimal empiricality and reliability," International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Vol.18, No.2-3, pp.117-132, 2004.
  14. 권용주, 정진수, 강민정, 박윤복, "생명현상에 대한 초, 중등 과학교사의 관찰에서 나타난 과학적 관찰의 유형", 한국과학교육학회지, 제25권, 제3호, pp.431-439, 2005.
  15. L. Ramey-Gassert and H. J. Walberg, "Reexamining connections: Museums as science learning environments," Science Education, Vol.78, No.4, pp.345-363, 1994.
  16. B. K. Smith and B. J. Reiser, "Explaining behavior through observational investigation and theory articulation," The Journal of the Learning Science, Vol.14, No.3, pp.315-360, 2005.
  17. P. C. Wason and P. N. Johnson-Laird, Psychology of reasoning: Structure and content, Harvard University Press, 1972.
  18. 문병찬, 이경학, 김해경, "지층에 대한 탐구 활동에서 초등영재 학생들의 관찰 및 추리 특성", 초등과학교육, 제28권, 제4호, pp.476-486, 2009.
  19. 송명성, 초등학교 6학년 학생의 관찰 유형에 대한 연구, 전주대학교 대학원 석사학위논문, 2008.
  20. 임재근, "탐구과제에 대한 사전지식이 초등과학 영재의 관찰방법과 의문에 미치는 영향", 과학교육연구지, 제34권, 제1호, pp.105-112, 2010.
  21. 이난영, 박물관학 입문, 삼화출판사, 2006.
  22. 이현영, 장상실, 성숙경, 이상권, 강성주, 최병순, "사회적 상호작용을 강조한 과학 탐구실험 과정에서 학생-학생 상호작용 양상 분석", 한국과학교육학회지, 제22권, 제3호, pp.660-670, 2002.
  23. A. Strauss and J. Corbin, Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques, Sage, 1998.
  24. J. Cohen, "A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales," Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol.20, No.1, pp.37-46, 1960.
  25. J. R. Landis and G. G. Koch, "The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data," Biometrics, Vol.33, No.1, pp.159-174, 1977.
  26. 강순민, 과학적 맥락의 논의 과제 해결 과정에서 나타나는 논의과정 요소의 특성, 한국교원대학교 대학원 박사학위논문, 2004.