Loranthus ferrugineus: a Mistletoe from Traditional Uses to Laboratory Bench

  • Ameer, Omar Z. (The Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Macquarie University) ;
  • Salman, Ibrahim M. (The Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Macquarie University) ;
  • Quek, Ko Jin (The Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Macquarie University) ;
  • Asmawi, Mohd. Z. (Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia)
  • Received : 2014.10.08
  • Accepted : 2014.12.24
  • Published : 2015.03.30


Objectives: Loranthus ferrugineus (L. ferrugineus) from Loranthaceae, a mistletoe, is a medicinal herb used for a variety of human ailments. Traditionally, decoctions of this parasitic shrub have been mainly used to treat high blood pressure (BP) and gastrointestinal complaints; usage which is supported by experimental based pharmacological investigations. Nonetheless, there is still limited data available evaluating this plant's traditions, and few studies have been scientifically translated toward evidence based phytomedicine. We therefore provide a concise review of the currently available L. ferrugineus literature and discuss potential directions for future areas of investigation. Methods: We surveyed available literature covering ethnopharmacological usage of L. ferrugineus and discussed relevant findings, including important future directions and shortcomings for the medicinal values of this parasitic shrub. Results: Evidence based pharmacological approaches significantly covered the medicinal application of L. ferrugineus for hypertension and gastrointestinal complaint management, with a particular focus on the active hydrophilic extract of this herb. Conclusion: Understanding the sites of action of this plant and its beneficial effects will provide justification for its use in old traditional treatments, and potentially lead to the development of therapies. Other medicinal applicative areas of this parasitic shrub, such as wound healing, gerontological effects, and antiviral and anticancer activities, are yet to be researched.


  1. The ABC clinical guide to herbs [internet]. USA: American Botanical Council; 2002. Available from:
  2. Ameer OZ. Characterization of Loranthus ferrugineus cardiovascular activites. an ethnopharmacological and phytochemical investigation. Germany: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing; 2011. 288 p.
  3. Amos S, Akah PA, Binda L, Enwerem NM, Ogundaini A, Wambebe C, et al. Hypotensive activity of the ethanol extract of pavetta crassipes leaves. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003;26(12):1674-80.
  4. Harvey AL. Medicines from nature: are natural products still relevant to drug discovery?. Trends Pharm Sci. 1999;20(5):196-8
  5. Ratera EL, Ratera MO. [Plantas de la flora argentina empleadas en medicina popular]. Spain: Hemisferio Sur Editorial; 1997. p. 1-189. Spanish.
  6. Tian WX, Li LC, Wu XD, Chen CC. Weight reduction by Chinese medicinal herbs may be related to inhibition of fatty acid synthase. Life Sci. 2004;74(19):2389-99
  7. Barlow BA, Classification of the Loranthaceae and viscaceae. Proc Linn Soc New South Wales. 1965;89:268-72.
  8. Kuijt J. Monograph of the Eremolepidaceae. Systematic Botany Monographs. USA: Amer Society of Plant Taxonomists; 1988. p. 1-60.
  9. Barlow B. Provisional key to the genera of Loranthaceae and viscaceae of the flora malesiana region. Flora Malesiana Bull. 1991;10:335-8
  10. Calvin CL, Wilson CA. Comparative morphology of epicortical roots in old and new world Loranthaceae with reference to root types, origin, patterns of longitudinal extension and potential for clonal growth. Flora-Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants. 2006;201(1):51-64.
  11. Park JH, Hyun CK, Shin HK. Cytotoxicity of heat-treated Korean mistletoe. Cancer Lett. 1998;126(1):43-8
  12. Park JH, Hyun CK, Shin HK. Cytotoxic effects of the components in heat-treated mistletoe (Viscum album). Cancer Lett. 1999;139(2):207-13.
  13. Wiart C. Medicinal plants of asia and the pacific. USA: CRC Press; 2006. p. 295.
  14. Kwanda N, Noikotr K, Sudmoon R, Tanee T, Chaveerach A. Medicinal parasitic plants on diverse hosts with their usages and barcodes. J Nat Med. 2013;67(3):438-45.
  15. Fernandez T, Wagner ML, Varela BG, Ricco RA, Hajos SE, Gurni AA, et al. Study of an argentine mistletoe, the hemiparasite ligaria cuneifolia (R. et P.) tiegh. (Loranthaceae). J Ethnopharmacol. 1998;62(1):25-34.
  16. Moghadamtousi SZ, Hajrezaei M, Abdul Kadir H, Zandi K. Loranthus micranthus linn.: biological activities and phytochemistry. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013(2013):9
  17. Katsarou A, Rhizopoulou S, Kefalas P. Antioxidant potential of the aerial tissues of the mistletoe loranthus europaeus jacq. Records Nat Products. 2012;6(4):394-7
  18. Onunogbo C, Ohaeri OC, Eleazu CO, Eleazu KC. Chemical composition of mistletoe extract (loranthus micranthus) and its effect on the protein, lipid metabolism and the antioxidant status of alloxan induced diabetic rats. J Med Res. 2012;1(4):57-62.
  19. Wong DZH, Kadir HA, Lee CL, Goh BH. Neuroprotective properties of loranthus parasiticus aqueous fraction against oxidative stress-induced damage in NG108-15 cells. J Nat Med. 2012;66(3):544-51.
  20. Hostanska K, Hajto T, Spagnoli G, Fischer J, Lentzen H, Herrmann R. A plant lectin derived from Viscum album induces cytokine gene expression and protein production in cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Nat Immun. 1995;14(5-6):295-304.
  21. Mothana RA, Al-Said MS, Al-Rehaily AJ, Thabet TM, Awad NA, Lalk M, et al. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antipyretic and antioxidant activities and phenolic constituents from Loranthus regularis steud. ex sprague. Food Chem. 2012;130(2):344-9
  22. Amabeoku GJ, Leng MJ, Syce JA. Antimicrobial and anticonvulsant activities of viscum capense. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998;61(3):237-41.
  23. Deeni Y, Sadiq N. Antimicrobial properties and phytochemical constituents of the leaves of african mistletoe (tapinanthus dodoneifolius (DC) danser) (Loranthaceae):an ethnomedicinal plant of hausaland, northern nigeria. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;83(3):235-40.
  24. Cemaluk EAC, Nwankwo NE. Phytochemical properties of some solvent fractions of petroleum ether extract of the african mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus linn) leaves and their antimicrobial activity. AFR J Biotechnol. 2012;11(62):12595-9
  25. Lohezic-Le Devehat F, Bakhtiar A, Bezivin C, Amoros M, Boustie J. Antiviral and cytotoxic activities of some indonesian plants. Fitoterapia. 2002;73(5):400-5.
  26. Osadebe PO, Abba CC, Agbo MO. Antimotility effects of extracts and fractions of eastern Nigeria mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus linn). Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012;5(7):556-60.
  27. Ohashi K, Winarno H, Mukai M, Shibuya H. Preparation and cancer cell invasion inhibitory effects of C16-alkynic fatty acids. Chem Pharm Bull. 2003;51(4):463-6.
  28. Tarfa FD, Amos S, Temple VJ, Ochekpe NA, Gamaniel KS. Hypoglycemic effects of the aqueous extract of African mistletoe, tapinanthus sesselifolius (P. beauv) van tiegh (Loranthaceae). Int J Biol Chem Sci. 2012;6(1):408-14.
  29. Waly NM, Ali AEED, Jrais RN. Botanical and biological studies of six parasitic species of family Loranthaceae growing in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Int J Environ Sci. 2010;1(4):196-205.
  30. Fukunaga T, Nishiya K, Kajikawa I, Takeya K, Itokawa H. Studies on the constituents of Japanese mistletoes from different host trees, and their antimicrobial and hypotensive properties. Chem Pharm Bull. 1989;37(6):1543-6.
  31. Tara CA, Wagner ML, Horacio MA, Roberto P, Gurni AA. Estudio farmacologico de un agente vasoactivo presente en Ligaria cuneifolia var, cuneifolia. Acta Farm Bonaerense. 1994;13(2):91-5.
  32. Iwalokun BA, Hodonu SA, Nwoke S, Ojo O, Agomo PU. Evaluation of the possible mechanisms of antihypertensive activity of loranthus micranthus: an african mistletoe. Biochem Res Int. 2011;2011.
  33. Graziano M, Widmer G, Coussio J, Juliani R. Isolation of tyramine from five Argentine species of Loranthaceae. Lloydia. 1967;30(3):242-4.
  34. Graziano M, Widmer G, Juliani R, Coussio J. Flavonoids from the Argentine mistletoe, psittacanthus cuneifolius. Phytochem. 1967;6(12):1709-11.
  35. Numan IT, Hamad MN, Hassan A. Hematopoietic toxicity of loranthus europaeus: in vivo study. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2013;6(1):117-20.
  36. Wagner H, Jordan E, Feil B. Studies on the standardization of mistletoe preparations. Oncology. 1986;43(S1):16-22.
  37. Winterferld K, Dorle E. The active material of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) II. Archives of Pharmacy. 1942;280:23-36.
  38. Yataro O. The components of Viscum album. I. searching for nitrogenous compound; isolation of arginin. Eur J Agron. 1941;17:219-21.
  39. Sajner J, Veris O. Occurrence of histamine in Viscum album. Die Pharmazie. 1958;13(3):170.
  40. Jordan E, Wagner H. Structure and properties of polysaccharides from Viscum album (L.). Oncology. 1986;43(S1):8-15.
  41. Sinha A, Taylor WH, Khan IH, McDaniel ST, Esko JD. Glycoside primers of psittacanthus cucullaris. J Nat Prod. 1999;62(7):1036-8
  42. Badr JM, Shaala LA, Youssef DT. Loranthin: a new polyhydroxylated flavanocoumarin from plicosepalus acacia with significant free radical scavenging and antimicrobial activity. Phytochem Lett. 2013;6(1):113-7
  43. Othman S. Cardiovascular effect of Loranthus ferrugineus roxb (a local mistletoe). [master's thesis]. Malaysia: Universiti Sains Malaysia; 1988
  44. Lohezic-Le-Devehat F, Tomasi S, Fontanel D, Boustie J. Flavonols from scurrula ferruginea danser (Loranthaceae). Z Naturforsch C Biosci. 2002;57:1092-5.
  45. Danser BH. Vernacular names of Loranthaceae in the Malay peninsula and the Netherlands Indies. Bull Jard Bot Buitenz. 1933;3(13):487-96.
  46. Quisumbing E. Medicinal plants of the Philippines. Tech Bull. 1951;16:126.
  47. Bantel H, Engels IH, Voelter W, Schulze-Osthoff K, Wesselborg S. Mistletoe lectin activates caspase-8/FLICE independently of death receptor signaling and enhances anticancer drug-induced apoptosis. Cancer Res. 1999;59(9):2083-90.
  48. Ernst E, Schmidt K, Steuer-Vogt MK. Mistletoe for cancer? a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Int J Cancer. 2003;107(2):262-7
  49. Rostock M, Huber R, Greiner T, Fritz P, Scheer R, Schueler J, et al. Anticancer activity of a lectin-rich mistletoe extract injected intratumorally into human pancreatic cancer xenografts. Anticancer Res. 2005;25(3B):1969-75.
  50. Stauder H, Kreuser ED. Mistletoe extracts standardised in terms of mistletoe lectins (MLI) in oncology: current state of clinical research. Onkologie. 2002;25(4):374-80.
  51. Kress WJ, Wurdack KJ, Zimmer EA, Weigt LA, Janzen DH. Use of DNA barcodes to identify flowering plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2005;102(23):8369-74.
  52. Kienle GS, Berrino F, Bussing A, Portalupi E, Rosenzweig S, Kiene H. Mistletoe in cancer-a systematic review on controlled clinical trials. Eur J Med Res. 2003;8(3):109-19
  53. Hooker WJ. Botanical miscellany: Containing figures and descriptions of such plants as themselves. London: Forgotten Books; 1830. p. 279
  54. Keng H. The concise flora of Singapore: gymnosperms and dicotyledons. Singapore: NUS Press; 1990. p. 222.
  55. Don G. A general history of the dichlamydeous plants. London: JG and F Rivington; 1834. p. 1-818
  56. Harborne AJ. Phytochemical methods, a guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. Netherlands: Springer Netherlands; 1998. p. 1-221.
  57. Narayanasamy C, Sampathkumar R. Host parasite relationships of dendrophthoe falcata (linn. f.) bettingh. (Loranthus longiflorus desr). J Bombay nat Hist Soc.1981;78(1):192-3.
  58. Misra PC. Regionalization of the physiological effect of mistletoe infection. Ind J Exp Biol. 1970;8(4):324-5.
  59. Ameer OZ, Salman IM, Yam MF, Abd Allah HH, Abdulla MH, Shah AM, et al. Vasorelaxant properties of Loranthus ferrugineus roxb. methanolic extract. Int J Pharmacol. 2009;5(1):44-50.
  60. Ameer OZ, Salman IM, Siddiqui MJ, Yam MF, Sriramaneni RN, Sadikun A, et al. Cardiovascular activity of the n-butanol fraction of the methanol extract of Loranthus ferrugineus roxb. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2010;43(2):186-94.
  61. Hebert PD, Gregory TR. The promise of DNA barcoding for taxonomy. Syst Biol. 2005;54(5):852-9
  62. Laslett LJ, Alagona P, Clark BA, Drozda JP, Saldivar F, Wilson SR, et al. The worldwide environment of cardiovascular disease: prevalence, diagnosis, therapy, and policy issues: a report from the American College of Cardiology. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;60(S25):1-49
  63. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010 [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011. Available from:
  64. Mathers CD, Loncar D. Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. Plos Med. 2006;3(11):e442.
  65. Mashour NH, Lin GI, Frishman WH. Herbal medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular disease: clinical considerations. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158(20):2225-34.
  66. Winslow LC, Kroll DJ. Herbs as medicines. Archives of internal medicine. 1998;158(20):2192-9
  67. Ben EE, Eno AE, Ofem OE, Aidem U, Itam EH. In-creased plasma total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein levels produced by the crude extract from the leaves of Viscum album (mistletoe). Niger J Physiol Sci. 2006;21(1-2):55-60.
  68. Ofem OE, Eno AE, Imoru J, Nkanu E, Unoh F, Ibu JO. Effect of crude aqueous leaf extract of Viscum album (mistletoe) in hypertensive rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2007;39(1):15-9
  69. Ameer OZ, Salman IM, Siddiqui MJA, Yam MF, Sriramaneni RN, Sadikun A, et al. Characterization of the possible mechanisms underlying the hypotensive and spasmogenic effects of Loranthus ferrugineus methanolic extract. Am J Chin Med, 2009;37(5):991-1008
  70. Ameer OZ, Salman IM, Najim HS, Abdullah GZ, Abdulkarim MF, Yam MF, et al. In vitro pharmacodynamic profile of Loranthus ferrugineus: evidence for noncompetitive antagonism of norepinephrine-induced vascular contraction. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2010;3(4):272-82.
  71. Guyenet PG. The sympathetic control of blood pressure. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2006;7(5):335-46.
  72. Loewy AD, Spyer KM. Central regulation of autonomic functions. USA: Oxford University Press; 1990. p. 88-103.
  73. Thomas GD. Neural control of the circulation. Adv Physiol Educ. 2011;35(1):28-32.
  74. Walch L, Brink C, Norel X. The muscarinic receptor subtypes in human blood vessels. Therapie. 2001;56(3):223-6.
  75. Khonsung P, Panthong A, Chiranthanut N, Intahphuak S. Hypotensive effect of the water extract of the leaves of pseuderanthemum palatiferum. J Nat Med. 2011;65(3-4):551-8
  76. Nwokocha CR, Owu DU, McLaren M, Murray J, Delgoda R, Thaxter K, et al. Possible mechanisms of action of the aqueous extract of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) leaves in producing hypotension in normotensive sprague-dawley rats. Pharm Biol. 2012;50(9):1096-102.
  77. Nguelefack TB, Mekhfi H, Dongmo AB, Dimo T, Watcho P, Zoheir J, et al. Hypertensive effects of oral administration of the aqueous extract of solanum torvum fruits in L-NAME treated rats: evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;124(3):592-9
  78. Orallo F. Acute cardiovascular effects of (+)-nantenine, an alkaloid isolated from platycapnos spicata, in anaesthetised normotensive rats. Planta Med. 2004;70(2):117-26.
  79. Raji I, Mugabo P, Obikeze K. The contributions of muscarinic receptors and changes in plasma aldosterone levels to the anti-hypertensive effect of Tulbaghia violacea. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013;13:13.
  80. Abrogoua DP, Dano DS, Manda P, Adepo AJ, Kablan BJ, Goze NB, et al. Effect on blood pressure of a dietary supplement containing traditional medicinal plants of cote d'ivoire. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;141(3):840-7
  81. Nyadjeu P, Dongmo A, Nguelefack TB, Kamanyi A. Antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark aqueous extract in rats. J Complement Integr Med. 2011;8(1):1-18
  82. Assaidi A, Legssyer A, Berrichi A, Aziz M, Mekhfi H, Bnouham M, et al. Hypotensive property of chenopodium ambrosioides in anesthetized normotensive rats. J Complement Integr Med. 2014;11(1):1-7
  83. Brunton L, Chabner BA, Knollmann B. Goodman and gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. China: McGraw-Hill Professional; 2011. p. 1808
  84. Lessa MA, Araujo CV, Kaplan MA, Pimenta D, Figueiredo MR, Tibirica E. Antihypertensive effects of crude extracts from leaves of Echinodorus grandiflorus. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2008;22(2):161-8
  85. Ghayur MN, Gilani AH. Radish seed extract mediates its cardiovascular inhibitory effects via muscarinic receptor activation. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2006;20(1):57-63.
  86. Martin DS, Breitkopf NP, Eyster KM, Williams JL. Dietary soy exerts an antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive female rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;281(2):553-60.
  87. Hasrat JA, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ. Medicinal plants in suriname: hypotensive effect of gossypium barbadense. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2004.56(3):381-7
  88. Luscher TF, Vanhoutte PM, The endothelium: modulator of cardiovascular function. London: CRC press; 1990. p. 248
  89. Bruno RM, Taddei S. Nitric oxide. in: encyclopedia of exercise medicine in health and disease. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 2011. p. 645-8
  90. Kane SR, Apte VA, Todkar SS, Mohite SK. Diuretic and laxative activity of ethanolic extract and its fractions of euphorbia thymifolia linn. Int J ChemTech Res. 2009;1(2):149-52.
  91. Ouedraogo M, Ruiz M, Vardelle E, Carreyre H, Coustard JM, Potreau D, et al. From the vasodilator and hypotensive effects of an extract fraction from Agelanthus dodoneifolius (DC) danser (Loranthaceae) to the active compound dodoneine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;133(2):345-52.
  92. Ameer OZ, Salman IM, Siddiqui MJ, Yam MF, Sriramaneni RN, Mohamed AJ, et al. Pharmacological mechanisms underlying the vascular activities of Loranthus ferrugineus roxb. in rat thoracic aorta. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;127(1):19-25.
  93. Kojsova S, Jendekova L, Zicha J, Kune? J, Andriantsitohaina R, Pechanova O. The effect of different antioxidants on nitric oxide production in hypertensive rats. Physiol Res. 2006;55(S1):3-16.
  94. Chen X. Cardiovascular protection by ginsenosides and their nitric oxide releasing action. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1996;23(8):728-32.
  95. Brixius K, Willms S, Napp A, Tossios P, Ladage D, Bloch W, et al. Crataegus special extract WS 1442 induces an endothelium-dependent, NO-mediated vasorelaxation via eNOS-phosphorylation at serine 1177. Cardiovasc Drug Ther. 2006;20(3):177-84.
  96. Taubert D, Berkels R, Roesen R, Klaus W. Chocolate and blood pressure in elderly individuals with isolated systolic hypertension. JAMA. 2003;290(8):1029-30.
  97. Grassi D, Desideri G, Ferri C. Protective effects of dark chocolate on endothelial function and diabetes. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2013;16(6):662-8
  98. Langmead L, Rampton D. Review article: herbal treatment in gastrointestinal and liver disease-benefits and dangers. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001;15(9):1239-52.
  99. Ameer OZ, Salman IM, Siddiqui MJ, Yam MF, Sriramaneni RN, Sadikun A, et al. In vitro cholinomimetic effect of Loranthus ferrugineus in isolated guinea pig ileum. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2009;2(4):288-93.
  100. Mehmood MH, Anila N, Begum S, Syed SA, Siddiqui BS, Gilani AH. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of carissa carandas in constipation and diarrhea. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;153(2):359-67
  101. Rehman N, Mehmood MH, Al-Rehaily AJ, Mothana RA, Gilani AH. Species and tissue-specificity of prokinetic, laxative and spasmodic effects of fumaria parviflora. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012;12(1):16.
  102. Ehlert FJ, Sawyer GW, Esqueda EE. Contractile role of M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors in gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Life Sci. 1999;64(6):387-94.
  103. Sawyer GW, Ehlert FJ. Contractile roles of the M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors in the guinea pig colon. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998;284(1):269-77
  104. Samuelson LC, Hinkle KL. Insights into the regulation of gastric acid secretion through analysis of genetically engineered mice. Annu Rev Physiol. 2003;65(1):383-400.
  105. Rabiei Z, Rafieian-kopaei M, Heidarian E, Saghaei E, Mokhtari S. Effects of zizyphus jujube extract on memory and learning impairment induced by bilateral electric lesions of the nucleus basalis of meynert in rat. Neurochem Res. 2014;39(2):353-60.
  106. Wenk GL, McGann-Gramling K, Hauss-Wegrzyniak B, Ronchetti D, Maucci R, Rosi S, et al. Attenuation of chronic neuroinflammation by a nitric oxide-releasing derivative of the antioxidant ferulic acid. J Neurochem. 2004;89(2):484-93.
  107. Terry AV, Buccafusco JJ. The cholinergic hypothesis of age and alzheimer's disease-related cognitive deficits: recent challenges and their implications for novel drug development. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;306(3):821-7
  108. Khalili M, Roghani M, Ekhlasi M. The effect of aqueous crocus sativus l. extract on intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced cognitive deficits in rat: a behavioral analysis. Iran J Pharm Res. 2009;8(3):185-91.
  109. Kim JH, Hahm DH, Lee HJ, Pyun KH, Shim I. Acori graminei rhizoma ameliorated ibotenic acid-induced amnesia in rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009;6(4):457-64.
  110. Schumacher U, Kretzschmar H, Pfuller U. Staining of cerebral amyloid plaque glycoproteins in patients with alzheimer's disease with the microglia-specific lectin from mistletoe. Acta Neuropathol. 1994;87(4):422-4.
  111. Schumacher U, Adam E, Kretzschmar H, Pfuller U. Binding patterns of mistletoe lectins I, II and III to microglia and alzheimer plaque glycoproteins in human brains. Acta Histochem. 1994;96(4):399-403.
  112. Harvey AL. Drugs from natural products. England: Ellis Horwood; 1993. p. 450.
  113. Chan K. Some aspects of toxic contaminants in herbal medicines. Chemosphere. 2003;52(9):1361-71.

Cited by

  1. Evaluation of the Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Phragmanthera capitata (Sprengel) Balle (Loranthaceae), a Mistletoe Growing on Rubber Tree, Using the Dilution Techniques vol.2017, 2017,
  2. Parasitic Mistletoes of the Genera Scurrula and Viscum: From Bench to Bedside vol.21, pp.8, 2016,
  3. Milling the Mistletoe: Nanotechnological Conversion of African Mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus) Intoantimicrobial Materials vol.7, pp.4, 2018,