- Volume 18 Issue 1
DOI QR Code
Stability Test and Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of the Amino Acids in Pharmacopuncture Extracted from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans
- Cho, GyeYoon (Department of Research & Development, Pharmacopuncture Research Laboratory, Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute) ;
- Han, KyuChul (Department of Research & Development, Pharmacopuncture Research Laboratory, Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute) ;
- Yoon, JinYoung (Department of Research & Development, Pharmacopuncture Research Laboratory, Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute)
- Received : 2014.12.12
- Accepted : 2014.12.31
- Published : 2015.03.30
Objectives: Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (S. subspinipes mutilans) is known as a traditional medicine and includes various amino acids, peptides and proteins. The amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans by using derivatization methods were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) over a 12 month period to confirm its stability. Methods: Amino acids of pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans were derived by using O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) & 9-fluorenyl methoxy carbonyl chloride (FMOC) reagent and were analyzed using HPLC. The amino acids were detected by using a diode array detector (DAD) and a fluorescence detector (FLD) to compare a mixed amino acid standard (STD) to the pharmacopuncture from centipedes. The stability tests on the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were done using HPLC for three conditions: a room temperature test chamber, an acceleration test chamber, and a cold test chamber. Results: The pharmacopuncture from centipedes was prepared by using the method of the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (KPI) and through quantitative analyses was shown to contain 9 amino acids of the 16 amino acids in the mixed amino acid STD. The amounts of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were 34.37 ppm of aspartate, 123.72 ppm of arginine, 170.63 ppm of alanine, 59.55 ppm of leucine and 57 ppm of lysine. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) results for the pharmacopuncture from centipedes had a maximum value of 14.95% and minimum value of 1.795% on the room temperature test chamber, the acceleration test chamber and the cold test chamber stability tests. Conclusion: Stability tests on and quantitative and qualitative analyses of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from centipedes by using derivatization methods were performed by using HPLC. Through research, we hope to determine the relationship between time and the concentrations of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from centipedes.
amino acids;derivatization methods;high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC);pharmacopuncture;Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans
- Negrea S, Minelli A. Chilopoda. In: Decu V, Juberthie C (eds) Encyclopedia bioespeologica. France: Moulis; 1995. p. 249-54.
- Gomes A, Datta A, Sarangi B, Kar PK, Lahiri SC. Pharmacodynamics of venom of the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes dehaani brandt. Indian J Exp Biol. 1982;20(8):615-8
- Acosta MD, Cazorla D. Centipede (Scolopendra sp.) envenomation in a rural village of semi-arid region from falcon state, venezuela. Rev Investi Clin. 2004;56(6):712-7
- Medeiros CR, Susaki TT, Knysak I, Cardoso JL, Malaque CM, Fan HW, et al. Epidemiologic and clinical survey of victims of centipede stings admitted to hospital vital brazil (sao paulo, brazil). Toxicon. 2008;52(5):606-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2008.07.009
- Gomes A, Datta A, Sarangi B, Kar PK, Lahiri SC. Isolation, purification and pharmacodynamics of a toxin from the venom of the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes dehaani brandt. Indian J Exp Biol. 1983;21(4):203 7
- Liu ZC, Zhang R, Zhao F, Chen ZM, Liu HW, Wang YJ, et al. Venomic and transcriptomic analysis of centipede Scolopendra subspinipes dehaani. J Proteome Res. 2012;11(12):6197-212. https://doi.org/10.1021/pr300881d
- Vidal JC, Cattaneo P, Stoppani AOM. Some characteristic properties of phospholipases A2 from bothrops neuwiedii venom. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1972;151(1):168-79 https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(72)90485-7
- Michal G. Biochemical pathways: an atlas of biochemistry and molecular biology. NewYork: Wiley; 1999. p. 5.
- Knysak I, Martins R, Bertim CR. Epidemiological aspects of centipede bites registered in greater S. Paulo, SP, Brazil. Rev Saude Publica. 1998;32(6):514-8 https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89101998000600003
- Pemberton RW. Insects and other arthropods used as drugs in Korean traditional medicine. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;65(3):207-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00209-8
- Moon SS, Cho NS, Shin JH, Seo YW, Lee CO, Choi SU. Jineol, a cytotoxic alkaloid from the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes. J Nat Prod. 1996;59(8):777-9 https://doi.org/10.1021/np960188t
- Mohamed AH, Abu-Sinna G, El-Shabaka HA, El-Aal A. Proteins, lipids, lipoproteins and some enzyme characterizations of the venom extract from the centipede Scolopendra moristans. Toxicon. 1983;21(3):371-7
- Stankiewicz M, Hamon A, Benkhalifa R, Kadziela W, Hue B, Lucas S, et al. Effects of a centipede venom fraction on insect nervous system, a native xenopus oocyte receptor and on an expressed drosophila muscarinic receptor. Toxicon. 1999;37(10):1431-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0041-0101(99)00089-6
- Simkhada JR, Cho SS, Mander P, Choi YH, Yoo JC. Purification, biochemical properties and antithrombotic effect of a novel streptomyces enzyme on carrageenan-induced mice tail thrombosis model. Thromb Res. 2012;129(2):176-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2011.09.014
- Yi Kong, Yu Shao, Hao Chen, Xin Ming, Jin-Bin Wang, Zhi-Yu Li, et al. A novel factor xa-inhibiting peptide from centipedes venom. Int J Pept Res Ther. 2013;19:303-11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10989-013-9353-0
- Kong Y, Huang SL, Shao Y, Li S, Wei JF. Purification and characterization of a novel antithrombotic peptide from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;145:182-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.10.048
- Furst P, Stehle P. What are the essential elements needed for the determination of amino acid requirements in humans?. J Nutr. 2004;134(S6):1558:65.
- Usage report of pharmacopuncture in musculoskeletal patients visiting Korean medicine hospitals and clinics in Korea vol.16, pp.1, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1288-5