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미생물암에 대하여: 한국적 관점

이정현
Lee, Jeong-Hyun

  • 투고 : 2015.07.25
  • 심사 : 2015.10.13
  • 발행 : 2015.12.30

초록

미생물에 의해 만들어진 퇴적암인 미생물암은 약 35억 년 전 지구 상에 최초로 등장한 이후 오늘날에도 다양한 환경에서 형성되고 있다. 미생물암은 미생물이 쇄설성 퇴적물을 고정하거나 탄산염을 침전시켜 생성되며, 그 결과 미생물암의 미세구조와 중간구조가 형성된다. 미생물암은 그 중간구조를 바탕으로 크게 스트로마톨라이트, 쓰롬볼라이트, 덴드롤라이트, 레이올라이트 등 네 가지로 분류한다. 지질 기록에서 미생물암의 분포 양상은 주로 해수 중 탄산칼슘 농도와 후생동물의 영향을 받았다. 선캄브리아 시대에 오랫동안 널리 분포하였던 스트로마톨라이트는 대기 중 이산화탄소 농도가 감소하면서 점차 줄어들었고, 이를 대신하여 신원생대부터 석회화된 미생물로 이루어진 쓰롬볼라이트가 번성하기 시작하였다. 이후 현생누대에 접어들며 다양한 후생동물이 등장함에 따라 미생물암이 퇴적기록에서 차지하는 비중은 매우 감소하였으며, 대멸종 직후 등 특정 시기에만 짧게 번성하였다. 한반도에서는 지금까지 신원생대 상원계, 전기 고생대 조선누층군, 백악기 경상누층군 등에서 미생물암이 보고된 바 있으며, 이들은 시대와 퇴적 환경에 따라 서로 다른 형태로 발달한다. 앞으로 한반도의 미생물암에 대한 추가 연구를 통해 미생물이 지질기록 및 퇴적환경에 미친 영향뿐만 아니라 미생물과 다른 생물들 사이의 상호작용을 이해할 수 있을 것이다.

키워드

미생물암;미생물초;스트로마톨라이트;쓰롬볼라이트

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